In 1905, when this book first appeared, Mazzinian studies were in their infancy. Apart from the Life by Bolton King and Cantimori's admirable Saggio sull' idealismo di Giuseppe Mazzini no serious work on Mazzini existed. Since that time much valuable research has been done. Among the best books published recently are those of Alessandro Levi on La filosofia politica di Giuseppe Mazzini (Zanichelli, Bologna, 1917, 2nd edition 1923); Manucci Giuseppe Mazzini e la prima fase del suo pensiero letterario (Casa Editrice Risorgimento, Milan, 1919); Luzio revealing volumes La madre di Mazzini (1919), Mazzini carbonaro (1920), and Carlo Alberto e Mazzini (1923), all published by Bocca, of Turin; and Rodolfo Mondolfo fine study 'Mazzini e Marx' in the volume entitled Sulle orme di Marx (Cappelli, Rocca di San Casciano, 1924). Furthermore we now have the national edition of Mazzini's works and Letters, and his correspondence with a family of English friends, edited by Mrs. Richards.
After so much labour by others and the passing of twenty years, I am conscious of a sense of dissatisfaction on re-reading this book of mine written in what seems another age. Not that there are errors of fact to be put right, or that I feel prompted to modify the con-