## Synopsis

Chemists, working with only mortars and pestles, could not get very far unless they had mathematical models to explain what was happening "inside" of their elements of experience -- an example of what could be termed mathematical learning.

This volume contains the proceedings of Work Group 4: Theories of Mathematics, a subgroup of the Seventh International Congress on Mathematical Education held at Université Laval in Québec. Bringing together multiple perspectives on mathematical thinking, this volume presents elaborations on principles reflecting the progress made in the field over the past 20 years and represents starting points for understanding mathematical learning today. This volume will be of importance to educational researchers, math educators, graduate students of mathematical learning, and anyone interested in the enterprise of improving mathematical learning worldwide.

This volume contains the proceedings of Work Group 4: Theories of Mathematics, a subgroup of the Seventh International Congress on Mathematical Education held at Université Laval in Québec. Bringing together multiple perspectives on mathematical thinking, this volume presents elaborations on principles reflecting the progress made in the field over the past 20 years and represents starting points for understanding mathematical learning today. This volume will be of importance to educational researchers, math educators, graduate students of mathematical learning, and anyone interested in the enterprise of improving mathematical learning worldwide.