Values, Lifestyles, and Psychographics

Values, Lifestyles, and Psychographics

Values, Lifestyles, and Psychographics

Values, Lifestyles, and Psychographics


This book showcases papers presented at the annual Advertising and Consumer Psychology Conference. The contributors -- active scholars with both practitioner and academic backgrounds -- share an interest in the general area of psychographics, values, and lifestyle in advertising.

The interdisciplinary and international mix of authors bring a diverse perspective to this volume, which is divided into four nonorthogonal sections. The first section deals with theoretical and conceptual issues in advertising research, while the second section presents chapters devoted to improving methodology. The final two sections illustrate how value, lifestyle, and psychographic research have been used to understand differences among people. The first of these final two sections emphasizes differences among people at different times (commonly called trend research), and the second emphasizes differences among people across national boundaries.

Collectively, these chapters illustrate how practical state-of-the-art research in values, lifestyles, and psychographics can be. Thoughtful consideration of values, lifestyles, and psychographics as they are manifested in quality research can improve advertising and marketing practice, and can help the business community deliver products and services that are more in line with consumers' needs.


Values, lifestyles, and psychographics represent the softer side of science. Even researchers used to tolerance for ambiguity, such as advertising researchers, have moments of affection for and moments of frustration with this type of research. Nevertheless, the past decade has witnessed considerable progress both conceptually and methodologically in this research. Its persistence continues to befuddle doomsayers. Many advertising researchers have continued to develop ways to incorporate value, lifestyle, and psychographic information into their models, even as others have abandoned it in frustration. Consumer researchers have continued to probe areas in which it proves particularly interesting, such as cross-national research and trend research. Many authors persist in their convictions that individuals differ in important ways above and beyond demographics and that understanding these differences matters greatly in advertising. Many scholars continue to echo Milton Rokeach (1973) view:

The concept of values, more than any other, is the core concept across all the social sciences. It is the main dependent variable in the study of culture, society, and personality, and it is the main independent variable in the study of attitudes and behavior. It is difficult for me to conceive of any problem social scientists might be interested in that would not deeply involve human values. (p. ix)

The concepts of values, lifestyles, and psychographics overlap. Values are enduring beliefs "that a specific mode of conduct or end-state is personally . . .

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