Manpower Resources and Utilization: Principles of Working Force Analysis

Manpower Resources and Utilization: Principles of Working Force Analysis

Manpower Resources and Utilization: Principles of Working Force Analysis

Manpower Resources and Utilization: Principles of Working Force Analysis

Excerpt

Defense preparations and war highlight and accentuate the problems of manpower resources and manpower utilization. The working force of a society is affected by defense preparations and war, but times of mobilization do not necessarily introduce any new or novel problems in understanding and analyzing the working force. On the contrary, on the basis of study and knowledge of the working force under peacetime conditions, we can appreciate the variations introduced by defense needs.

Accordingly, in this book we are directing our attention primarily to a study of the United States working force--what it is, what factors have influenced it in the past and what pressures are shaping it today, and how it is related to other aspects of our society. We are attempting to deal with the "normal" working force and the "normal" aspects of manpower utilization, knowing full well that "normality" is either a statistical figment or an attempt to escape the realities of the present by retreating into the past. Nevertheless, the "normal" if equated to "peacetime conditions" gives us a point of departure from which the "abnormal" aspects of defense and war--and even depressions-- can be viewed.

This study is concerned with the totality of workers, whether employed or unemployed. We are interested in knowing how many of them there are, what their personal characteristics are, what work they do, what goods or services they produce. We also consider as important, knowledge about the many adults in a modern industrialized society who are not a part of the working force, the manpower resources of a nation. Why do some people remain at home, attend school, or otherwise spend their time without working for pay or profit? What motivates some married women to seek paid work, whereas others are content to remain housewives? Why do some older persons prefer retiring from the working force, whereas others wish to continue working?

Although we have directed our observations mainly at the United States, we have attempted to provide a better basis for generalizations about the working force, by bringing to bear selected materials from other nations. We have selected such data and findings as seemed to . . .

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