With Pen and Voice: A Critical Anthology of Nineteenth-Century African-American Women

With Pen and Voice: A Critical Anthology of Nineteenth-Century African-American Women

With Pen and Voice: A Critical Anthology of Nineteenth-Century African-American Women

With Pen and Voice: A Critical Anthology of Nineteenth-Century African-American Women


"Owoman, woman! upon you I call; for upon your exertions almost entirely depends whether the rising generation shall be any thing more than we have been or not. Owoman, woman! your example is powerful, your influence great."- Maria W. Stewart,

"An Address Delivered Before the Afric-American Female Intelligence Society of Boston" (1832)

Here- in the only collection of speeches by nineteenth-century African-American women- is the battle of words these brave women waged to address the social ills of their century. While there have been some scattered references to the unique roles these early "race women" played in effecting social change, until now few scholars have considered the rhetorical strategies they adopted to develop their powerful arguments.

In this chronological anthology, Shirley Wilson Logan highlights the public addresses of these women, beginning with Maria W. Stewart's speech at Franklin Hall in 1832, believed to be the first delivered to an audience of men and women by an American-born woman. In her speech, she focused on the plight of the Northern free black. Sojourner Truth spoke in 1851 at the Akron, Ohio, Women's Rights Convention not only for the rights of black women but also for the rights of all oppressed nineteenth-century women. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper struggled with the conflict between universal suffrage and suffrage for black men. Anna Julia Cooper chastised her unique audience of black Episcopalian clergy for their failure to continue the tradition of the elevation of womanhood initiated by Christianity and especially for their failure to support the struggling Southern black woman. Ida B. Wells's rhetoric targeted mob violence directed at Southern black men. Her speech was delivered less than a year after her inaugural lecture on this issue- following a personal encounter with mob violence in Memphis. Fannie Barrier Williams and Victoria Earle Matthews advocated social and educational reforms to improve the plight of Southern black women. These speeches- all delivered between 1832 and 1895- are stirring proof that, despite obstacles of race and gender, these women still had the courage to mount the platform in defense of the oppressed.

Introductory essays focus on each speaker's life and rhetoric, considering the ways in which these women selected evidence and adapted language to particular occasions, purposes, and audiences in order to persuade. This analysis of the rhetorical contexts and major rhetorical tactics in the speeches aids understanding of both the speeches and the skill of the speakers. A rhetorical timeline serves as a point of reference.

Historically grounded, this book provides a black feminist perspective on significant events of the nineteenth century and reveals how black women of that era influenced and were influenced by the social problems they addressed.

"A government which can protect and defend its citizens from wrong and outrage and does not is vicious. A government which would do itand cannot is weak; and where human life is insecure through either weakness or viciousness in the administration of law, there must be a lack of justice, and where this is wanting nothing can make up the deficiency."- Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, "Duty to Dependent Races," National Council of Women of the United States, Washington, D. C. (1891)


The nineteenth century in African-American experience was filled with turmoil and change. Social exigencies multiplied exponentially as those of African descent first confronted slavery and discrimination, then adjustment to newly acquired physical freedom during Reconstruction, followed by mob violence and the struggle to obtain full citizenship. It is an experience that has been described frequently but not fully. Some muffled voices are those of black women, voices that are gradually being restored to full volume. This anthology is designed to contribute to the restoration by presenting the rhetorical responses of black women who spoke and wrote as preambles to action. As Shockley acknowledges, "To counteract this assault upon black freedom, black women writers fought with pen and voice" (110)

In 1871, a black correspondent of The Christian Recorder, organ of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, stressed the importance of black lecturers: "While we need some to diffuse literature in the form of journals and periodicals, we also need those who instruct the masses orally, especially those who cannot read, nor will not subscribe for a paper to be read to them" (qtd. in Foner 6). Frederick Douglass in 1870 exhorted that "press, platform, pulpit should continue to direct their energies to the removal of the hardships and wrongs which continue to be the lot of the colored people of this country" (qtd. in Foner 6). In the forefront of those who chose the platform as the vehicle through which to address these "hardships and wrongs" were black women.

One could easily assemble such a collection as this with texts produced solely during the 189Os. In "Woman's Political Future," a speech delivered at the 1893 World's Congress of Representative Women, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper challenged the women in her audience to exert their influence upon the political life of the nation. Black women of that decade, responding to Harper's challenge, perceived themselves on "the threshold of woman's era" and spoke out on numerous occasions. But such an anthology would ignore the often lonely and solo voices of those women, like Maria Stewart in 1832, who were speaking out even before it . . .

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