China and Soviet Russia

China and Soviet Russia

China and Soviet Russia

China and Soviet Russia

Excerpt

One of the great puzzles of recent international politics is the problem: Why, in the course of a few years, did the relations of China and the United States change from friendship to hostility? Dr. Hu Shih, who served with distinction as Chinese ambassador to the United States for several years before September 1942, discussed this question at a meeting of the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia in April 1951.

"China's woe began," he said, "on that memorable day in January, 1942, when she was invited by the United States government to sign the Declaration of the United Nations together with the United Kingdom, the United States and the U.S.S.R. The other nations were invited to sign the next day, according to alphabetical order. By that act of well-intentioned courtesy, China was made an ally of the three greatest powers fighting German and Japanese aggression. She became one of the Big Four! From that time on, China's relations with her Anglo-Saxon allies became more and more difficult. Her greatest difficulty was her failure to live up to her American ally's great expectations of her. The United States and China were loyal friends for many decades. But China's elevation from a friend to an ally was the real cause of the worsening of Sino-American relations."

The growth of the Communist Party in China since its first meeting in Shanghai in July 1921, with thirteen participants, including Mao Tse-tung, was a factor in this change. But how did this acorn grow to so great an oak in thirty years? Why were the Communists successful?

The Far Eastern policy of Russia, whose revolution of 1917 followed by only a few years the revolution of China in 1911, was a factor both in the rise of Chinese Communism and in the deterioration of Chinese relations with the United States. Chinese-Soviet relations have gone through many changes, none more significant than the change from the treaty of August 1945, in which the Soviet Union recognized the Kuomintang government of General Chiang Kai-shek as the only government of China, to the treaty of alliance . . .

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