This volume is a study of coordination, i.e. structures with conjunctions such as and, but, and or. These are important words in their constructions, rather than being unimportant and superfluous, because they have many properties in common with categories such as verbs and prepositions. Dr Johannessen has analysed data from thirty-three languages, many of them unrelated, and has found striking similarities. She focuses in particular on `unbalanced coordination' (UC), that is, coordination in which the conjuncts differ with respect to crucial grammatical features such as case and word order. UC occurs in many of the languages in the study, and provides evidence for an analysis of overt, as well as covert, conjunctions as heads in an X-bar theoretical framework. Specifically, there is a strong correlation between the order of conjunctions and abnormal conjuncts and that of heads and complements generally in the languages that have UC. Dr Johannessen also considers extraordinary balanced coordination, in which both conjuncts are abnormal. This phenomenon provides additional evidence for conjunctions being heads. She gives a comprehensive account of coordination in general, including extraction, coordination categories, multiple coordination, and 'discontinuous conjunctions'. SERIES DESCRIPTION Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax Series Editor: Richard S. Kayne The growing sophistication of syntactic theory is making it possible to achieve an increasingly precise characterization of syntactic differences among languages. By shedding light on the nature of syntactic variation, the books in this series will also contribute to our understanding of that which is syntactically variant, i.e. those facets of syntax that can be construed as reflecting properties of universal grammar.


This book is a descendant of my Ph.D. dissertation, completed in 1993. Many of the theoretical assumptions and conclusions are the same. One major departure from the thesis is the account of "shared material," which is no longer one of "fusion" or "merging," but of deletion. The sections on multiple coordination and CoP adverbs (often called "discontinous" or "initial" conjunctions) are considerably expanded. The concept of "pseudocoordination" is also discussed. More linguistic data have been added, and the discussions of other literature and theories have been updated.

The book has benefitted from very helpful comments from two anonymous OUP referees, and from the two external members of my thesis committee--Elisabet Engdahl and Kjartan Ottósson. My two thesis supervisors were naturally very important. Helge LØdrup;drup shared his knowledge with me, presented challenging criticisms, and was always eager to engage in fruitful discussions on various topics of the thesis. Cathrine Fabricius Hansen gave me great encouragement, offered insightful comments, and made continual and not in the end entirely fruitless efforts to make me approach coordination from a semantic perspective.

Students and staff at the Department of Linguistics, University of Oslo, have meant a lot. I would like to mention Rolf Theil Endresen, Jan Tore Lønning, Kjetil Strand, and Arnfinn Vonen, as well as Trond Kirkeby- Garstad and Kjell Johan SæbØ;, for their ever willingness to take part in discussions. Several other people at the Faculty of Arts have been helpful in providing data and helping me with translations.

I spent the year of 1990 as a visitor at the Centre for Cognitive Science, University of Edinburgh. I am extremely grateful for the inspiration I received from the active research atmosphere of students and staff there, especially Elisabet Engdahl, David Adger, Guy Barry, Glyn Morrill, Martin Picketing, and Catrin Siân Rhys.

Many of the main ideas of the theory presented here were developed in May-June 1992. I must express my gratitude to David Adger, whose enthusiasm was a great motivation to pursue those ideas. Special thanks are also due to Greville Corbett, who sent me a paper on Qafar, written by himself and R. J. Hayward, which led me to see the universal tendencies presented in this work.

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