Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured

Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured

Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured

Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured

Synopsis

This book is a critically informed challenge to the traditional histories of rhetoric and to the current emphasis on Aristotle and Plato as the most significant classical voices in rhetoric. In it, Susan C. Jarratt argues that the first sophists- a diverse group of traveling intellectuals in the fifth century B. C.- should be given a more prominent place in the study of rhetoric and composition. Rereading the ancient sophists, she creates a new lens through which to see contemporary social issues, including the orality/literacy debate, feminist writing, deconstruction, and writing pedagogy. The sophists' pleasure in the play of language, their focus on historical contin-gency, and the centrality of their teaching for democratic practice were sufficiently threatening to their successors Plato and Aristotle that both sought to bury the sophists under philosophical theories of language. The censure of Plato and Aris-totle set a pattern for historical views of the sophists for centuries. Following Hegel and Nietzsche, Jarratt breaks the pattern, finding in the sophists a more progressive charter for teachers and scholars of reading and writing, as well as for those in the adjacent disciplines of literary criticism and theory, education, speech communication, and ancient history. In tracing the historical interpretations of sophistic rhetoric, Jarratt suggests that the sophists themselves provide the outlines of an alternative to history-writing as the discovery and recounting of a set of stable facts. She sees sophistic use of narrative in argument as a challenge to a simple division between orality and literacy, current discussions of which virtually ignore the sophists. Outlining similarities betweenécriture féminineand sophistic style, Jarratt shows that contemporary feminisms have more in common with sophists than just a style; they share a rhetorical basis for deployment of theory in political action. In her final chapter, Jarratt takes issue with accounts of sophistic pedagogy focusing on technique and the development of the individual. She argues that, despite its employment by powerful demagogues, sophistic pedagogy offers a resource for today's teachers interested in encouraging minority voices of resistance through language study as the practice of democracy.

Excerpt

I N THE frontispiece illustration, you see a woman taking something out of a box. The notes describing this sixth-century B.C. grave marker tell us that we do not know what it is she handles. It could be a text, thus making this artifact valuable evidence for women's early literacy. Or, more likely, the description reads, she holds a cosmetics box. This interpretation reaffirms the persistent view of women as superficial and deceptive: those who cover up the true and natural with a beautiful but artificial surface, making it seem to be something other than it really is.

I chose this image to grace my work on the sophists because it offers a visual analog for my project. The woman historian uncovers something -- the reader is not sure what -- either a text to be read and considered seriously, or else materials for painting a face on something. If I am preparing to "make something up," then who is more in need of embellishment, some might say, than the first sophists: arch-deceptors, enemies of Truth, manipulators of language? If I prepare to read a text, how fitting that the image is blurred, for remains of the sophists are fragmented and doubtful. Like the sophists, given two choices, I take both, weighing the one against the other. This study is both a serious attempt to reconsider the sophists and a chance to dress them up, to make the worse case better. With my ancient sister on the cover, Pandora-like, I open the box and hold my breath, waiting to see what comes out.

Opening the box has taken quite a long time, and the longer I look, the more I see. The reader can trace those changes through the chapters. I begin with an impulse, a wish, an intuition -- a desire for a different kind of history. As a student of classical rhetoric, I was . . .

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