Industrial Culture and Bourgeois Society: Business, Labor, and Bureaucracy in Modern Germany, 1800-1918

Industrial Culture and Bourgeois Society: Business, Labor, and Bureaucracy in Modern Germany, 1800-1918

Industrial Culture and Bourgeois Society: Business, Labor, and Bureaucracy in Modern Germany, 1800-1918

Industrial Culture and Bourgeois Society: Business, Labor, and Bureaucracy in Modern Germany, 1800-1918

Synopsis

Written by a German historian devoted to the integration of the social and economic history of Europe during industrialisation, this collection of essays shows his effort to develop new analytical tools for understanding modern industrial societies.

Excerpt

Bureaucracy, Family, Industry

When German industrialization began in the 1830s, powerful public bureaucracies had already developed. They increasingly displayed certain characteristics that, in varying degrees and with many modifications, were shared by other large-scale organizations, especially those developed since the end of the nineteenth century. They served as the empirical basis for Max Weber's definition of bureaucracy. According to that definition, used in this essay as a model, "bureaucracy" refers to organizations with highly formalized internal relations, mostly in the form of impersonal, general, written rules; with a practice of handling affairs as cases according to general rules; with a fixed, institutionalized distribution of functions and responsibilities; with a hierarchical, institutionalized pattern of authority corresponding to the distribution of responsibilities; and with an intensive, continuous system of records and files. Persons employed in such organizations hold a specific status; they are appointed on the basis of contractual agreement according to general rules, qualifications, and examinations; they hold tenure and enjoy seniority rights (such as in matters of promotion and salaries) as well as old-age security (pensions). Further, they are expected to display a specific

Notes for this section begin on page 43.

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