German and Austrian Expressionism in the United States, 1900-1939: Chronology and Bibliography

German and Austrian Expressionism in the United States, 1900-1939: Chronology and Bibliography

German and Austrian Expressionism in the United States, 1900-1939: Chronology and Bibliography

German and Austrian Expressionism in the United States, 1900-1939: Chronology and Bibliography

Excerpt

The term Expressionism . . . designates not an artistic programme but an attitude of mind, not an artistic form but a wave of hopes and utopian ideas, of fears and despair.

Wolf-Dieter Dube

Expressionists and Expressionism

In 1905 a group of artists united in Dresden to form Die Künstlergruppe Brücke, a movement which would eventually include such artists as Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Otto Mueller, Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein, and Karl Schmidt- Rottluff. Following the formation of Die Brücke, Neue Künstlervereinigung München and Der Blaue Reiter emerged in 1909 and 1911, respectively; these later groups attracted artists like Wassily Kandinsky, Alexei von Jawlensky, August Macke, Franz Marc, and Gabriele Münter. Although the onslaught of the First World War terminated any activity by these groups, the artists continued to work--even those fighting in the German and Austrian armies. Many important artists affiliated themselves with Expressionism during the intervening years between the world wars: Ernst Barlach, Max Beckmann, Heinrich Campendonk, Otto Dix, George Grosz, Karl Hofer, Paul Klee, Oskar Kokoschka, Georg Kolbe, Käthe Kollwitz, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, and Jules Pascin. Nor was Expressionism confined to artists of Wilhelmine Germany or the Austro-Hungarian Empire; two Americans, Lyonel Feininger and Marsden Hartley, also became involved in this movement.

Nevertheless, the rise and development of German and Austrian Expressionism should be familiar to those opening this book, and for that reason, the history of Expressionism need not be further discussed at this point. What the reader may not be as familiar with, however, is how this movement was received in the United States during the first four decades of this century.

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