Expression of the Emotions in Man

Expression of the Emotions in Man

Expression of the Emotions in Man

Expression of the Emotions in Man

Excerpt

PETER H. KNAPP, M.D.

A symposium may properly begin with Plato. His celebrated metaphor in Phaedrus depicts the soul as "a charioteer and a pair of winged horses . . . one of them is noble and of noble breed; the other is ignoble and of ignoble breed; and the driving of them of necessity gives a great deal of trouble to him." Shortly thereafter he refers to the soul as "enshrined in that living tomb which we carry about, now that we are imprisoned in the body like an oyster in his shell." His Dialogue presents sharply the dualistic aspects of platonic thought: right opposed to wrong, psyche to soma, and will to emotion.

In his psychoanalytic study of history, Norman Brown describes Western European culture as "2000 years of higher education based on the notion that man is essentially a soul for mysterious accidental reasons imprisoned in a body" (1959, p. 31). The medieval era preserved certain rudimen-

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