Studies in the Theory of Human Society

Studies in the Theory of Human Society

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Studies in the Theory of Human Society

Studies in the Theory of Human Society

Read FREE!

Excerpt

These consecutive studies are a book of Sociology without the form or the formality of a text. The discursive manner has permitted me to reiterate cardinal ideas and principles, exhibiting them in many lights and relations. I have thought this important in these days of loose thinking on social themes.

The theory of human society into which these ideas are organized is stated in Chapter XVI, as follows:

"If I can be said to have a system of sociology it is briefly this:

"1. A situation or stimulus is reacted to by more than one individual; there is pluralistic as well as singularistic behavior. Pluralistic behavior develops into rivalries, competitions, and conflicts, and also, into agreements, contracts, and collective enterprises. Therefore, social phenomena are products of two variables, namely, situation (in the psychologist's definition of the word) and pluralistic behavior.

"2. When the individuals who participate in pluralistic behavior have become differentiated into behavioristic kinds or types, a consciousness of kind, liking or disliking, approving or disapproving one kind after another, converts gregariousness into a consciously discriminative association, herd habit into society; and society, by a social pressure which sometimes is conscious but more often, perhaps, is unconscious, makes life relatively hard for kinds of character and conduct that are disapproved.

"3. Society organizes itself for collective endeavor and achievement if fundamental similarities of behavior and an awareness of them are extensive enough to maintain social cohesion, while differences of behavior and awareness of them in matters of detail are sufficient to create a division of labor.

"4. In the long run organized society by its approvals and disapprovals, its pressures and achievements, selects and perpetuates . . .

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