For a number of years I have been deeply interested in problems of pioneering, especially of pioneering in the tropics. My earlier studies were concerned with the possibilities of settlement in the tropics by peoples of other latitudes, both Westerners and Asiatics. In the course of these studies I became more and more interested in the fact that in many parts of the tropics, above all in the Asiatic tropics, there has been a great need for alleviation of the pressure of population. Occasionally this has led to spontaneous pioneering by small groups of settlers, but more frequently to the encouragement and support of pioneering by governments.
It was my original plan to visit all of the countries around the South China Sea and to study government-sponsored settlement activities in the Philippines, the Netherlands Indies, Malaya, and Indochina at first hand. The war, however, prevented me from visiting the mainland of Southeastern Asia; instead, I had to limit myself to the island world of the Philippines and the Netherlands Indies. From May 1940 to May 1941 I traveled throughout the islands of Luzon, Negros, Cebu, Mindanao, Java, Sumatra, and Bali. The war has also made impossible a rechecking of many of the references.
In the field I enjoyed the generous help of a large number of government officials as well as of private persons. In the Philippines I turned frequently for advice and assistance to Mr. Arthur F. Fischer, then President Quezon's adviser, who, as former Director of the Bureau of Forestry, has an unrivaled knowledge of the Philippine Islands. I am especially grateful to the staff of the National Land Settlement Administration.
In the Netherlands Indies I found the officials of the departments of Economic Affairs and of the Interior most kind and helpful. I wish to express thanks especially to Dr. H. J. van Mook, then Director of the Department of Economic Affairs, and to Messrs. A. Luytjes, J. J. Ochse, E. de Vries, A.M.M.P. Scheltema, A. K. Pringgodigdo, Th. J. Odenkirchen, P. Creutzberg, J. C. L. Götz van der Vet, J.F. Dekker, H.A.A.M. Wirtz, L. Gonggrijp, J. F. Kools, W. F. H. van Ameron, L. H. Vreeling, H. Loos, and W. E. K. Baron van Lynden, all of the Department of Economic Affairs. I am also greatly indebted to Governors C. O. van der Plas and L. Adam and to the following members of the Department of the Interior: Messrs. C. C. J. Maassen, J. M. Pieters, H. J. Friedericy, A. Jonkers, J. van der Zwaal, A. Deelemen, G. Ijsselstijn and G. de Lassequere.
To my wife, who accompanied me, I am deeply indebted for inspiration and encouragement as well as for keen criticism of the manuscript. Dr. Robert Bowman read the first part of the book with painstaking care; his criticism and suggestions were of great value to me. The late G.H.C. Hart read and criticized the chapters on the Netherlands Indies. I wish also to express my gratitude to Professor Leo Waibel, Dr. George F. Carter, and Messrs. Bruno Lasker and Philip Lilienthal for their helpful suggestions and to the editors for their work. The guidance of the U.S. Board on Geographical Names . . .