The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

Excerpt

A new edition of this startlingly fresh and original inquiry gives those of us who are becoming interested in the non-verbal aspects of human communication -- the new science of kinesics -- a very special opportunity to protect our own capacity to see and judge afresh. Darwin approached the subject of expression of the emotions with all the force of a powerful imagination dealing with a new field. His list of ways in which the subject might be studied has not been improved upon and indeed has hardly yet been attempted: (1) the study of infants, (2) the study of the insane, (3) the use of photographs of emotional expression submitted to different judges, (4) the study of great paintings and sculpture, (5) the comparative study of expression and gesture among the different peoples of the earth, (6) the study of some of the commoner animals. (Only one modern method -- projective tests -- is missing.) Here too, the sense of scope, of open avenues down which the investigator may move quickly and freely is all there to speed us on our way. Although many of his suggested hypotheses, such as the serviceability of habit, would today be replaced by quite different theoretical formulations based on modern genetics, still, he has posed problems which have as yet no answer, such as what possible expressive function does the dog's fawning have except that it is the opposite of an expression of pugnacity which can be seen as direct and functional -- the bared teeth, arched back, etc. of an appropriate fighting stance. In this and in other similar questions it is clear . . .

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