The Spirit of Russia: Studies in History, Literature and Philosophy

The Spirit of Russia: Studies in History, Literature and Philosophy

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The Spirit of Russia: Studies in History, Literature and Philosophy

The Spirit of Russia: Studies in History, Literature and Philosophy

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CHAPTER FOURTEEN: REALISM AND NIHILISM. CERNYŠEVSKII AND DOBROLJUBOV. PISAREV.

I.

§ 95. Cernyševskii's philosophical Development.--Realism (Nihilism); Feuerbach, Positivism, Utilitarianism.--The "anthropological Principle."--Philosophy of the Enlightenment in the Sense of Peter the Great and that of Lessing.--Cernyševskii versus Kant 1

§ 96. Cernyševskii's Utilitarianism.--The Problem of the Will.--His Ethic social and socialistic; Love and Egoism upon a materialistic Basis necessitate Communism as a System of Equality and Equal Rights.--What is to be done as a Description of the materialistic and positivist Utilitarians, the Realists or Nihilists.--The Woman's Question.--Cernyševskii versus Self-Sacrifice 8

§ 97. Utilitarian Realism in Aesthetics.--Beauty is Life 17

§ 98. Dobroljubov continues Cernyševskii's literary Criticism 19

§ 99. Cernyševskii's Philosophy of History.--History and Science in general do not exclude Convictions.--The hypothetical Method 25

§ 100. Cemyševskii and Marx; Heroes of the Spirit as primal Sources of Energy.--Lessing.--Cernyševskii versus Darwin and the Struggle for Existence 28

§ 101. Cernyševskii's Socialism is ethical.--He favours the Liberation of the Peasantry and the Assignment of Land to the Peasants. --Economics.--The Mir and the social Order of the Future; Russia can overleap Stages of Development 30

§ 102. Cernyševskii's Sociology and Politics.--Anarchist Elements.-- The Opposition between Aristocracy and Democracy.--The Conflict with Herzen.--Cernyševskii and Dobroljubov as Representatives of the Rasnocinec, as "Children" against "Fathers."--The Question of Nationality from the materialist Outlook 35

§ 103. Cernyševskii's Participation in the practical Work of Revolution 39

§ 104. Cernyševskii's philosophical and literary Activities in Siberia 43

§ 105. The true Significance of Cernyševskii's Materialism; the philosophical Revolution against the Theocracy 48

§ 106. Cernyševskii's Influence.--Cernyševskii prepares the Ground for Marxism.--Cernyševskii and the Narodnicestvo 50

II.

§ 107. Pisarev's Realism.--The Realist as a consistent Individualist, Egoist, and Hedonist; Aesthetics and Principles in general are annihilated.--The Realist might murder and rob, and is withheld from doing so only by his subjective Taste.-- Pisarev's Exaggerations (Pisarev, Stirner, and Nietzsche).-- Pisarev's Utilitarianism, naturalist Materialism, and Positivism 53

§ 108. The Realist becomes a "thoughtful Realist."--Pisarev's Interpretation of Turgenev's Bazarov.--The absolute Negation of Russia; Stupidity and Poverty.--Matters must be thought to a Finish; Salvation by natural Science 58

§ 109. The Problem of the Hungry and the Insufficiently clad; the "thoughtful Realist" becomes the "thoughtful Proletarian."--The thoughtful Realist not a Faust.--The Nihilist even recognises the old morality.--Pisarev's Influence; the Nihilist as Intellectual 63

III.

§ 110. Nihilism 69

i. Realism as Nihilism in Art, Aesthetics, and literary Criticism; Naturalism: Realism versus Romanticism 69

ii. Positivism and Materialism; Facts, not Philosophy; Practice, not Theory 70

iii. Nihilism as destructive Criticism and socio-political Negation of the Uvarovian Trinity; Atheism and Materialism; Nihilist Disillusionment versus Mysticism.--Nihilism is not Pessimism and Indifferentism.--The Nihilist is a believing Unbeliever 72

iv. Ethics the leading nihilist Discipline.--Empiricist and practical Ethics.--Nihilist Industry versus aristocratic Tedium.--Irony and Cynicism versus romanticist Sentimentality.--Nihilist Democracy takes the Form of the Movement "towards the People."--Nihilists in social Intercourse and nihilist Phraseology.--The nihilist Community; Friendship and Love.--Nihilism inevitably becomes political and revolutionary 74

v. Nihilism versus Aristocracy and Liberalism.--Nihilism as Radicalism, Democracy, Socialism.--Nihilism as Anarchism; all Things are lawful.--The Problem of Crime 78

vi. The manifold Types, Kinds, and Degrees of Nihilism.-- Fathers and Children; Questions put by the "Children" to the "Fathers."--Nihilism as the leading Problem of the day; Dostoevskii; Nietzsche 79

IV.

§ III. Nihilism and Terrorism.--The Program of the revolutionary Movement 81 . . .

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