Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit

Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit

Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit

Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit

Synopsis

This comprehensive overview offers a radical critique of various positions within political philosophy on immigration. Cole argues that there is a serious gap between the legal and social practices of immigration and naturalization in liberal democratic states and the theoretical justification for such practices within the tradition of liberal political philosophy. The book examines various responses to this contradiction, and finds none of them satisfactory, arguing that this has serious implications both for liberal practice and theory.

Excerpt

For Southern blacks, segregated transportation was long one of the most despised forms of discrimination. The Jim Crow railroad car, the seats at the back of a bus, the "colored" waiting room in a rail or bus depot or an airport were all blatant indicators of blacks' second-class status. In each facility they received inferior accommodations and service and frequently, abuse from white carrier employees, white passengers, or white policemen. But even without inequality or ill-treatment, a color line in public transit was a humiliating personal affront. Blacks who lived through the Jim Crow era complained bitterly about segregated railways and buses, and their autobiographies almost always describe an incident aboard a carrier as one of their most infuriating encounters with the South's racial order.

This book examines the struggle to end segregation in Southern rail, bus, and air transportation, analyzing the role of all the major participants in the controversy. Within the black community, it records the efforts of little-known groups and individuals as well as major organizations such as the NAACP. It identifies the varied resources blacks drew on, at the national and local levels, to combat Jim Crow carriers, and it explores the different techniques they used, ranging from litigation to lobbying to protest. In the federal arena, this study details Supreme Court rulings on segregated transit, considering the justices' changing attitudes toward Jim Crow and the practical effects of their decisions on carrier operations. It describes the activities of the executive branch, from the Roosevelt through the Kennedy administrations, in altering and enforcing the law regarding segregated transportation. Journey from Jim Crow investigates federal regulatory agencies, such as the Interstate Commerce Commission, to see how they dealt with civil rights issues. It outlines the response of Southern whites to the gradual decline of segregation. The book also looks at the practices of rail and bus companies, explaining . . .

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