The Concept of Indeterminism and Its Applications: Economics, Social Systems, Ethics, Artificial Intelligence, and Aesthetics

The Concept of Indeterminism and Its Applications: Economics, Social Systems, Ethics, Artificial Intelligence, and Aesthetics

The Concept of Indeterminism and Its Applications: Economics, Social Systems, Ethics, Artificial Intelligence, and Aesthetics

The Concept of Indeterminism and Its Applications: Economics, Social Systems, Ethics, Artificial Intelligence, and Aesthetics

Synopsis

Scholars in various fields are exploring similar ideas to combat indeterminism when conditions seem chaotic and prohibit the use of a rigid program approach, even with probabilities. Many do not realize that they are dealing with the same issues that appear between chaos and full order (or stochastic processes) in a phase that lends itself to the same formal treatment. Examples are observed in the development of social systems, the evaluation of corporate performance or of a position in chess. Conceptualization of this treatment requires a better understanding of indeterminism. The author contends that the category of indeterminism has its own meaning dealing with unavoidability.

Excerpt

Analysis of systems characterized by relatively fast-paced change has been impaired by the application of methods suitable for systems that feature slower rate of change. More specifically, research into biological, socioeconomic, artificial intelligence, art, linguistics, and other such systems is affected adversely by the use of the methodology more suitable for such extensively explored systems as the physical system.

The investigation of the universe aims to uncover the laws that govern the physical processes. This methodology was deemed appropriate because the physical system was perceived as changing very slowly (in time and in space). Once discovered, the law (such as the law of gravity) was thought fixed and universal for the entire physical domain (not just some parts of it) from elementary particles to galaxies.

Apart from the physical laws, the universe was analyzed algorithmically; that is, on the base of equilibrium (optimization) models that incorporate the variables of given physical systems. This complete and consistent procedure links the initial state of a system with its future states.

This raises the following question: What are the specific features regarding fast changing systems that preclude the use of the methodology that is widely adopted in physics

The one distinguishing mark of a changing system is the presence of two- ended source of development. I call it Janus processes (in my previous writings I called them tunnel processes) following the image of the Romans' god Janus. In accordance with the Roman mythology, Janus, as the patron of beginnings and endings, has two faces looking in opposite directions: one in front, the other at the back of his head (Webster New World Dictionary, 1980). The features of Janus processes require a new methodological approach, which leaves room for the classical methods, but now these methods must be integrated into the new scheme (and new methods) that is adequate for the study of changing systems.

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