Personnel: A Behavioral Approach to Administration

Personnel: A Behavioral Approach to Administration

Personnel: A Behavioral Approach to Administration

Personnel: A Behavioral Approach to Administration

Excerpt

The primary purpose of this revision is to recognize and critically evaluate the effects upon personnel management of the most pressing problems facing present-day management, namely: technological change, and its inevitable companions, mechanization, automation, computers, and information systems; social responsibility, especially as it involves minority groups, pollution, consumerism, and safety; and the mushrooming and irrevocable movement to international operations and the corollary national trend toward comparative administration.

A second purpose is to present the changing concepts of personnel management during the last decade. Prior to that time, there was a shift from the "scientific management" approach to the "human relations" concept. Now, there is a trend toward studying personnel management from several different approaches, including the "behavioral science," "process," "management science," "management by objectives," and "principles" points of view. Most of these modifications are incorporated in this book , but the primary emphasis is given to the "behavioral science" approach.

The third purpose of this revision is the same as that for the earlier edition--to put into perspective the many changes which have occurred in performing the personnel function itself. Some of these will be mentioned at this time; the others will be discussed throughout the book.

The environment for performing the personnel function has changed drastically. Previously, it was assumed that the employer-employee relationships, which constitute the personnel function, occurred in a factory and involved only hourly-paid production employees working in a "shop" environment. The employer-employee relationship was viewed as occurring in a work situation unrelated to the world outside. Today it is realized that the relationship exists not in isolation but in the total milieu in which work is performed. Therefore, the environment for personnel management now includes not only the production activities but also clerical, sales, and managerial activities as well as the growing field of research and development. As an organization exists in a given culture and cannot be understood outside the context of that cultural setting, personnel man-

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