The U.S. Intelligence Community

The U.S. Intelligence Community

The U.S. Intelligence Community

The U.S. Intelligence Community


This book provides a detailed overview of America's vast intelligence empire -- its organizations, its operations (from spies on the ground to satellites thousands of miles in space), and its management structure. Relying on a multitude of sources, including hundreds of official documents, it provides an up-to-date picture of the U.S. intelligence community that will provide support to policymakers and military operations into the next century.


This book represents an attempt to accomplish in one volume what could better be done in several. It attempts to provide a comprehensive and detailed order of battle of the U.S. intelligence community--to describe its collection and analysis organizations, their activities, and the management structure that is responsible for directing and supervising those organizations and activities.

Given the purpose of the book, I do not seek to evaluate the community's effectiveness in performing its varied tasks or to comment on the acceptability, wisdom, or morality of all of its activities. Those are important topics and require far more space than would be available here. In the concluding chapter I do address some of the issues and challenges facing America's intelligence community in the coming century.

The data used in this book come from a variety of sources-interviews; official documents (many of which were obtained under the Freedom of Information Act); books written by former intelligence officers, journalists, and academics; trade and technical publications; newspapers and magazines. The public literature on intelligence is vast and of varying quality, and I have done my best to sort the wheat from the chaff. I have also sought to incorporate the most recent available information at each stage of the production process, to minimize the inevitable discrepancies between the situation as described when the book went to press and the situation when it is actually read. In addition, I have identified sources to the maximum extent possible, while protecting the identities of those individuals who wish to remain anonymous.

The book's structure is largely the same as that of the third edition, with a few exceptions. I have eliminated the "Ocean Surveillance, Space Surveillance, and Nuclear Monitoring" chapter that appeared in the previous three editions. Some of the subjects discussed in that chapter can now be found in the imagery and signals intelligence chapters, particularly the SIGINT chapter. That change reflects the fact that much of the effort of Navy SIGINT assets is directed at targets on shore as well as at sea. Two new chapters--one on MASINT and the other wholly dedicated to space surveillance--focus on the other topics previously discussed in the single chapter. In addition, the internal structure of the chapter on analysis and estimates is based on the types of intelligence rather than on the entities that . . .

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