Thought Reform of the Chinese Intellectuals

Thought Reform of the Chinese Intellectuals

Thought Reform of the Chinese Intellectuals

Thought Reform of the Chinese Intellectuals

Excerpt

Reporting on the work of his government at the Fourth Session of the First National People's Congress on June 26, 1957, Chou En-lai, Communist China's prime minister and then also foreign minister, summarized the record of the Communist regime in consolidating its power and using it to lead the country into socialism. The consolidation of state power, he said, was achieved by dint of 'five major campaigns': (1) the agrarian reform to destroy feudalism and the landlord class; (2) the 'Resist-America Aid-Korea' campaign against American imperialism; (3) the suppression of counter-revolutionaries to eliminate opposition to the people's democratic dictatorship; (4) the 'three-anti' and 'five-anti' campaigns against the bourgeoisie; and (5) ideological remoulding to change the outlook, the thought patterns, and the basic loyalties of the people.

These five campaigns, he said, paved the way for what he called 'the three big transformations'. These were: (1) the socialist transformation of agriculture into co-operatives and collectives; (2) the socialist transformation of individual handicraft production into co-operative production; and (3) the socialist transformation of private capitalist industry and commerce into joint state-private enterprises.

Chou En-lai pointed out that of the five major campaigns two were specially directed towards the intellectuals. The Resist- America Aid-Korea campaign had for its object the uprooting of the pro-American attitudes and habits of thought so common among intellectuals while the campaign of ideological remoulding had for its object their ideological indoctrination and thought reform.

In actuality, thought reform is basic to every one of the five campaigns and three transformations. The land reform was considered an important means by which the intellectuals as well as the entire rural population learned the significance of the class struggle; the suppression of counter-revolutionaries meant, in part, the elimination of persons ideologically opposed to the new rulers; and the 'three-anti' and 'five-anti' were campaigns directed against 'bourgeois ideology' as well as the bourgeoisie as a class. Finally, the Communists have laid stress on 'socialist education' and the development of a 'socialist ideology' as a prerequisite to . . .

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