The Rise of New Nations: The Relations of Races in South America. The Two Americas and the Relation of South America to Europe. The Conditions of Political Life in Spanish America. Some Reflections and Forecasts

The Rise of New Nations: The Relations of Races in South America. The Two Americas and the Relation of South America to Europe. The Conditions of Political Life in Spanish America. Some Reflections and Forecasts

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The Rise of New Nations: The Relations of Races in South America. The Two Americas and the Relation of South America to Europe. The Conditions of Political Life in Spanish America. Some Reflections and Forecasts

The Rise of New Nations: The Relations of Races in South America. The Two Americas and the Relation of South America to Europe. The Conditions of Political Life in Spanish America. Some Reflections and Forecasts

Read FREE!

Excerpt

IN A.D. 1808, when Napoleon Bonaparte, the true Liberator of Spanish America, moved his armies into Spain, the dominions of the Spanish Crown stretched south eight thousand miles from the bay of San Francisco to the Straits of Magellan. The population that was scattered thinly over that vast region was mostly native Indian, but there may possibly have been a million of pure Spanish stock and many times that number of mixed Spanish and Indian blood. All except the Indians spoke Spanish; all except the wild heathen tribes were Roman Catholics, and the white men were orthodox Catholics, with universal and genuine horror of heresy. All who were of pure European or of mixed blood followed customs and held ideas generally similar; all had been ruled by governors sent from Spain under laws and an administrative system drawn up and carried out on similar lines. In every region the Roman Church was powerful and monasteries abounded. There were no sharp local distinctions among this Spanish and Indo-Spanish population. Intercolonial trade was indeed forbidden, and permission to travel from one colony to another had to be obtained. But as all were subjects of one king and members of one Church, there was no political separation beyond that which was in-

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