Agrarian Unrest in Southeast Asia

Agrarian Unrest in Southeast Asia

Agrarian Unrest in Southeast Asia

Agrarian Unrest in Southeast Asia

Excerpt

During a four-year stay in the Philippines I had the opportunity to study agrarian conditions in the Islands in peace and war. This led to an interest in the problems of the farming population through Southeast Asia and resulted, through the generosity of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, in the present study.

In the following pages I have tried to analyze the multiple effects of economic dependence in the populous colonial and semi-colonial areas of Southeast Asia and to emphasize the vicious circle established by the interaction of cause and effect. The imminent mechanization of colonial agriculture is sure to bring about the gradual dislocation of a considerable part of the peasant population and thereby accentuate the lack of economic diversification that is almost inseparable from colonial dependence. As far as the national movements in Southeast Asia are concerned, I have tried to show that, to a considerable degree, they are movements for land and for the reasonable use of land.

In this connection I wish to stress that the present study is based largely on previously published material and that I am deeply indebted to all those who have worked in the field and have analyzed thoroughly the conditions in the various countries of the area. In this place I can mention only a few—Rupert Emerson, L. S. Furnivall, J. Van Gelderen (who died during the recent war), Pierre Gourou, Karl Pelzer, and Virginia Thompson. But especially I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Russell Andrus who placed at my disposal his manuscript on Burma, which has since been published by Stanford University Press,Palo Alto, California, under the title Burmese Economic Life.

I owe sincere gratitude to the Carnegie Endowment for Interna-

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