The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz)

The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz)

The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz)

The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz)

Synopsis

This is the first comprehensive analysis that integrates the developing vision of the man, Malcolm X, with the man he became, El Hajj Malik El Shabazz. It provides an in-depth analysis of Malcolm's directives on why the African-American struggle for national liberation and self-determination is necessary, how it should be carried on, and why it can succeed.

Excerpt

Although the subject of struggle and martyrdom in Islam is much too vast and complex to be covered in this brief introduction, we feel it is helpful to attempt to present a generalized notion of the subject, in order to better understand the orientation and ideas of the first American muslim martyr, El Hajj Malik El Shabazz (Malcolm X) concerning revolution and national liberation.

In the Quran, there are provisions for the guidance of the many forms of political organization (including liberation movements) in times of peace, struggle and neutrality. This guidance forms the basis of what we may see as the similarity between the Islamic and international law view of struggle. Contrary to the two main premises frequently held with regard to struggle in Islam, one particularly by western world scholars, which regards all wars in Islam as offensive: the other held by many Muslim writers that Islamic struggles have always been defensive, the validity of struggle in Islam is based on neither premise. Both these orientations are based on wrong presumptions. The very consideration of offence and defence as the prime value criteria for struggle has doubtful legal and moral foundation in Islam. Struggle is always in the "way of God" and therefore it is conducted in accordance with God's Commandments. Thus it is the Quranic injunction that makes struggle valid; in this way, whether to struggle or not is a legal as well as a political question. For example, when a group is oppressed, struggle in Islam is imperative: it may be non- violent or armed struggle. However it is always under defined conditions that the waging of a struggle becomes valid or obligatory. The questions of offence or defence are only elements of the criteria. The whole moral force underlying struggle (Jihad), obedience to God's injunctions and God's rewards, would vanish if priority were given only to self-defence, although self-defence is often mentioned as one of the many conditions under which struggle is made obligatory on the community (ummat). Thus, to examine the Islamic position on struggle, one need only to determine the conditions or limits prescribed by God under which struggle is divinely enjoined or is justified.

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