Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century

Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century

Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century

Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century

Synopsis

Gardner (cognition and education, Harvard U.) broadens his theory of multiple intelligences first posited in Frames of Mind (1983) to include intelligences of the existential and naturalist types and multiple forms of creativity. The McArthur genius award recipient advises on applications of his theory, responds to critics, and provides global contacts on MI theory.

Excerpt

Every society features its ideal human being. The ancient Greeks valued the person who displayed physical agility, rational judgment, and virtuous behavior. The Romans highlighted manly courage, and followers of Islam prized the holy soldier. Under the influence of Confucius, Chinese populations traditionally valued the person who was skilled in poetry, music, calligraphy, archery, and drawing. Among the Keres tribe of the Pueblo Indians today, the person who cares for others is held in high regard.

Over the past few centuries, particularly in Western societies, a certain ideal has become pervasive: that of the intelligent person. The exact dimensions of that ideal evolve over time and setting. In traditional schools, the intelligent person could master classical languages and mathematics, particularly geometry. In a business setting, the intelligent person could anticipate commercial opportunities, take measured risks, build up an organization, and keep the books balanced and the stockholders satisfied. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the intelligent person was one who could be dispatched to the far corners of an empire and who could then execute orders competently. Such notions remain important to many people.

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