Reading and Spelling: Development and Disorders

Reading and Spelling: Development and Disorders

Reading and Spelling: Development and Disorders

Reading and Spelling: Development and Disorders


Entertainment writers are often faced with the challenge of reviewing an unfamiliar work. Whether movies or sculpture, art or architecture, this book guides the writer through the steps necessary to produce an acceptable review of these arts, as well as television, literature, drama, dance, and music.

Using current illustrations from a variety of newspapers, the author shows how the pros deal with the arts, as well as pointing out the problems students face in writing reviews. He also deals with the advance story, libel as it pertains to criticism, and the ethics of the business.

New in this edition is a chapter dealing with the arts writer as police reporter, as violence has moved into the popular music scene. The book also includes a suggested reading list for more information on each specific art form.


Alvin M. Liberman
Haskins Laboratories

About 25 years ago, some of my colleagues posed the question that was, in their view, basic to an understanding of the reading process and the ills that so frequently attend it: What must would-be readers know that mastery of speech will not have taught them? Drawing on a combination of common sense, old knowledge about language, and new knowledge about speech, they arrived at the hypothesis that a missing and necessary condition was what has come to be called phonological awareness--that is, a conscious understanding that words come apart into consonants and vowels. Research then demonstrated that such awareness is not normally present in preliterate children or illiterate adults; that measures of awareness provide, perhaps, the best single predictor of reading achievement; and that training designed to develop awareness has generally beneficial effects on learning to read.

However, the pioneers of phonological awareness rather neglected the flip side of their inquiry: Why is phonological awareness not necessary for speech? My aim is to repair that omission. To that end, I seek reasons, in addition to those my colleagues found, why the phonologic structures that are common to speaker and hearer are nevertheless not noticed by either. Beyond further rationalizing the hypothesis--now a fact--that phonological awareness is not a normal by-product of learning to speak, those reasons should lay bare the critical difference between speech and reading/writing, and thus let us see why the one is so much easier than the other. Moreover, when taken together with considerations having to do with the operation . . .

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