Historical Studies of Church-Building in the Middle Ages: Venice, Siena, Florence

Historical Studies of Church-Building in the Middle Ages: Venice, Siena, Florence

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Historical Studies of Church-Building in the Middle Ages: Venice, Siena, Florence

Historical Studies of Church-Building in the Middle Ages: Venice, Siena, Florence

Read FREE!




Degradation of the Arts after Fall of the Roman Empire. -- Effort of Charlemagne to Revive them. -- Improvement during Tenth Century in the Conditions of Society. -- Beginnings of Distinct National Life in Europe. -- Principles of Unity; Christianity and the Church, the Tradition of the Empire, Roman Law, Commerce, Equality of Intellectual Conditions. -- Moral Unity of the Western Nations Illustrated by the History of Architecture from Eleventh to Thirteenth Century. -- Revival of the Arts near 1000 A.D. -- Analogy in the History of Language and the Arts. -- The Impulse of Expression in Architecture Manifest in Zeal for Church-building. -- Motives of this Zeal. -- The Services of the Church to Mediæval Society. -- Activity of Building in Germany, in Italy, and elsewhere. -- Essential Similarity in the Style of Architecture throughout Western Europe. -- The Romanesque Style. -- Rapid, Regular, and Splendid Development of Architecture. -- Monastic and Lay Builders.- -- The Gothic Style. -- Revival of the Sense of Beauty, of the Study of Nature. -- Pervading Artistic Spirit. -- The Union of the Arts in the Church Edifice. -- General Lack of Contemporary Information in regard to Churchbuilding. -- Illustrations from the Romances. -- Exceptions to the General Lack of Information. -- Conclusion Page 3


Unique Character of Venice and the Venetians. -- Affection of the Venetians for their City. -- The Commerce of Venice, Trade with the East. -- Political and Ecclesiastical Independence of the Venetians. -- Civic Good Order. -- Confidence in the Perpetuity of Venice. -- St. Mark Patron of Venice. -- Legend of the Translation of his Body from Alexandria. -- The First Church of St. Mark. -- Its Destruction by Fire. -- Disappearance of the Body of the Saint. -- The Miracle of its Discovery. -- The Building and Plan of the Existing Church. -- Its Adornment. -- Mosaics. -- Inscriptions. -- Change in Character of Venetian Architecture in Fifteenth Century. -- St. Mark's as the Scene of Public Transactions.

Public Transactions. -- The Religious Quality of Venetian Character. -- The Legend of Pope Alexander III. and Frederic Barbarossa. -- Enrico Dandolo. -- Preparations for the Third Crusade. -- Mission of Villehardouin to Venice. -- Proceedings of the Venetians. -- Departure of the Fleet. -- St. Mark's Enriched by the Pillage of Constanthiople. -- The Story of St. Mark's an Epitome of that of Venice. Page 39



Turbulence of the Sienese during Middle Ages. -- Public Works in Twelfth Century. -- Beginning ofthe Duomo. -- Its Site. -- Story of the Early Work. -- The Building a Work of the Commune. -- Ordinances relating to it. -- Sicilesc Archivcs. -- Funds for Building. -- The Festival of the Madonna of August. -- Earliest Records relating to the Existing, Building. -- Work done in 1260. -- Guelf and Ghibelline. -- Effect of Death of Fredcric II. on Party Relations. -- Discord between Florence and Siena. -- Ghibellines Exiled from Florence Welcomed by Siena. -- Preparations for War. -- Manfred Takes Siena under his Protection. -- German Mercenaries. -- Campaign of the Spring of 1260. -- Farinata degli Uberti. -- Preparations for Autumn Campaign. -- Florentines March towards Siena, and Encamp at Montaperti. -- Summons, to the City to Surrender. -- Deliberations and Preparations of the Sicnese. -- Battle of Montaperti. -- Rout of the Florentines. -- Results of the Sienese Victory.87


Progress of the Building. -- The Cupola. -- Irregularities in Construction. -- The Pulpit of Niccola Pisano. -- Release of Prisoners. -- Picr Pettignano. -- The Façade. -- Giovanni Pisano. -- Revival of Painting. -- Duccio di Boninsegna, his Altar-piece. -- Celebration in Taking it to the Duomo. -- The New Baptistery. -- Proposal for a New Church. -- Its Rejection. -- Slow Progress of the Buildin. -- Oblatcs. -- New Statutes respecting the Duomo. -- Change in the Spiritual Temper of the People in Fourteenth Century -- Flourishing Condition of the City. -- Resolve to Build a New Church. -- Beauty and Magnificencc of the New Design. -- Work Begun -- Lando di Pietro. -- Calamities in 1340 -- Activity in Public Works. -- Increase of Wealth and Dissoluteness -- The Plague of 134S. -- Its Horrors. -- Desolation of the City. -- Slow and Partial Rccovcry -- Diminution of Population, and of Means for Carrying on the Duomo -- The New Church Given Up and in Great Part Demolished -- End of the Story of the Duomo as a Great Civic Work -- Completion of the Existimg Building -- Its Wealth of Adornment -- Decline of Siena.124



Flourishing Condition of Florence at Close of Thirteenth Century. -- Her Political Administration. -- Ordinances of Justice. -- The Arti, their Organization and Influence. -- Public Works. -- Rebuilding of Sta. Reparata. -- New Church Begun 1294. -- Sources of Means for its Erection. -- Arnolfo di Cambio Architect. -- Character of his Style. -- Wretched Condition of Florence in 1300. -- Dino Compagni's Chronicle. -- Charles of Valois at Florence. -- Dante Condemned and Banished. -- Death of Arnolfo. -- His Work in Florence. -- Palaces and Towers. -- Methods of Construction. -- Conflagration of 1304. -- Party Strife. -- Neglect of Work on the Cathedral. -- War with Castruccio Castracani. -- Burning of Cecco d'Ascoli. -- Effects of War. -- Charge of the Duomo Committed to the Art of Wool. -- Superintendence of Public Works by the Arts. -- The Baptistery in Charge of the Art of Calimala. -- Statute of the Art. -- Feast of St. John Baptist. -- Release of Prisoners. -- The Care of the Carroccio. -- Procurators at Rome. -- 1334: Giotto Chosen Chief Master of the Work of the Cathedral. -- His Work on it. -- His Bell-tower. -- His Death. -- The Plague of 1348. -- Its Effects in Florence. -- New Plans for the Duomo. -- Arnolfo's Design Abandoned. -- 1357: Work Begun on the New Design. -- Francesco Talenti Chief Master. -- Character of the New Design. -- Change in Architectural Taste. -- Progress of the Work till the Beginning of Fifteenth Century. Page 181


Picture in the Spanish Chapel in which the Duomo is Represented. -- The Problem of the Dome. -- The Doors of the Baptistery. -- Competition of 1401. -- Brunelleschi and Ghiberti. -- Decision in Favor of Ghiberti. -- The Biographers of Brunelleschi. -- Brunelleschi's Journey to Rome. -- Its Object. -- His Studies there. -- Progress of Work on the Duomo. -- Designs for the Dome. -- Deliberations of the Opera. -- Competition. -- Brunelleschi's Advice and Model. -- Donatello Assists him. -- Brunelleschi's Project. -- Its Novelty and Boldness. -- Decision in its Favor. -- 1420: Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, and Battista d' Antonio Chosen Chief Master-builders. -- Group of Artists at Florence. -- Artistic Spirit of the Florentines. -- Story of Building of the Cupola as told by Vasari. -- Character of Vasari's Lives. -- Giovanni di Gherardo's Sonnet and Remonstrance. -- Progress of the Work. -- Ghiberti's Incompetence. -- Ruse of Brunelleschi. -- 1432: Close of Ghiberti's Connection with the Work. -- Incidents of Building. -- War with Filippo Visconti. -- Slackness in Progress. -- Renewal of Activity in Building. -- 1434: Completion of Dome. -- Pope Eugenius IV. in Florence. -- 1436: Consecration of the Duomo. -- The Lives of Vespasiano da Bisticci. -- Cosimo de' Medici. -- Activity of the Arts. -- Benediction of the Cupola. -- Leon Battista Alberti. -- Dedication of his Treatise on Painting to Brunelleschi. -- The Lantern. -- Decision in Favor of Brunelleschi's Model. . . .

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