Historical Studies of Church-Building in the Middle Ages: Venice, Siena, Florence

Historical Studies of Church-Building in the Middle Ages: Venice, Siena, Florence

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Historical Studies of Church-Building in the Middle Ages: Venice, Siena, Florence

Historical Studies of Church-Building in the Middle Ages: Venice, Siena, Florence

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CONTENTS.

I CHURCH-BUILDING IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

Degradation of the Arts after Fall of the Roman Empire. -- Effort of Charlemagne to Revive them. -- Improvement during Tenth Century in the Conditions of Society. -- Beginnings of Distinct National Life in Europe. -- Principles of Unity; Christianity and the Church, the Tradition of the Empire, Roman Law, Commerce, Equality of Intellectual Conditions. -- Moral Unity of the Western Nations Illustrated by the History of Architecture from Eleventh to Thirteenth Century. -- Revival of the Arts near 1000 A.D. -- Analogy in the History of Language and the Arts. -- The Impulse of Expression in Architecture Manifest in Zeal for Church-building. -- Motives of this Zeal. -- The Services of the Church to Mediæval Society. -- Activity of Building in Germany, in Italy, and elsewhere. -- Essential Similarity in the Style of Architecture throughout Western Europe. -- The Romanesque Style. -- Rapid, Regular, and Splendid Development of Architecture. -- Monastic and Lay Builders.- -- The Gothic Style. -- Revival of the Sense of Beauty, of the Study of Nature. -- Pervading Artistic Spirit. -- The Union of the Arts in the Church Edifice. -- General Lack of Contemporary Information in regard to Churchbuilding. -- Illustrations from the Romances. -- Exceptions to the General Lack of Information. -- Conclusion Page 3

II VENICE AND ST. MARK'S.

Unique Character of Venice and the Venetians. -- Affection of the Venetians for their City. -- The Commerce of Venice, Trade with the East. -- Political and Ecclesiastical Independence of the Venetians. -- Civic Good Order. -- Confidence in the Perpetuity of Venice. -- St. Mark Patron of Venice. -- Legend of the Translation of his Body from Alexandria. -- The First Church of St. Mark. -- Its Destruction by Fire. -- Disappearance of the Body of the Saint. -- The Miracle of its Discovery. -- The Building and Plan of the Existing Church. -- Its Adornment. -- Mosaics. -- Inscriptions. -- Change in Character of Venetian Architecture in Fifteenth Century. -- St. Mark's as the Scene of Public Transactions.

Public Transactions. -- The Religious Quality of Venetian Character. -- The Legend of Pope Alexander III. and Frederic Barbarossa. -- Enrico Dandolo. -- Preparations for the Third Crusade. -- Mission of Villehardouin to Venice. -- Proceedings of the Venetians. -- Departure of the Fleet. -- St. Mark's Enriched by the Pillage of Constanthiople. -- The Story of St. Mark's an Epitome of that of Venice. Page 39

III. SIENA, AND OUR LADY OF THE ASSUMPTION.

I. THE BEGINNING OF THE, DUOMO, AND THE BATTLE OF MONTAPERTI.

Turbulence of the Sienese during Middle Ages. -- Public Works in Twelfth Century. -- Beginning ofthe Duomo. -- Its Site. -- Story of the Early Work. -- The Building a Work of the Commune. -- Ordinances relating to it. -- Sicilesc Archivcs. -- Funds for Building. -- The Festival of the Madonna of August. -- Earliest Records relating to the Existing, Building. -- Work done in 1260. -- Guelf and Ghibelline. -- Effect of Death of Fredcric II. on Party Relations. -- Discord between Florence and Siena. -- Ghibellines Exiled from Florence Welcomed by Siena. -- Preparations for War. -- Manfred Takes Siena under his Protection. -- German Mercenaries. -- Campaign of the Spring of 1260. -- Farinata degli Uberti. -- Preparations for Autumn Campaign. -- Florentines March towards Siena, and Encamp at Montaperti. -- Summons, to the City to Surrender. -- Deliberations and Preparations of the Sicnese. -- Battle of Montaperti. -- Rout of the Florentines. -- Results of the Sienese Victory.87

II. THE STORY OF THE DUOMO AFTER 1260.

Progress of the Building. -- The Cupola. -- Irregularities in Construction. -- The Pulpit of Niccola Pisano. -- Release of Prisoners. -- Picr Pettignano. -- The Façade. -- Giovanni Pisano. -- Revival of Painting. -- Duccio di Boninsegna, his Altar-piece. -- Celebration in Taking it to the Duomo. -- The New Baptistery. -- Proposal for a New Church. -- Its Rejection. -- Slow Progress of the Buildin. -- Oblatcs. -- New Statutes respecting the Duomo. -- Change in the Spiritual Temper of the People in Fourteenth Century -- Flourishing Condition of the City. -- Resolve to Build a New Church. -- Beauty and Magnificencc of the New Design. -- Work Begun -- Lando di Pietro. -- Calamities in 1340 -- Activity in Public Works. -- Increase of Wealth and Dissoluteness -- The Plague of 134S. -- Its Horrors. -- Desolation of the City. -- Slow and Partial Rccovcry -- Diminution of Population, and of Means for Carrying on the Duomo -- The New Church Given Up and in Great Part Demolished -- End of the Story of the Duomo as a Great Civic Work -- Completion of the Existimg Building -- Its Wealth of Adornment -- Decline of Siena.124

IV. FLORENCE, AND ST. MARY OF THE FLOWER.

I. THE CHURCH OF ARNOLFO .

Flourishing Condition of Florence at Close of Thirteenth Century. -- Her Political Administration. -- Ordinances of Justice. -- The Arti, their Organization and Influence. -- Public Works. -- Rebuilding of Sta. Reparata. -- New Church Begun 1294. -- Sources of Means for its Erection. -- Arnolfo di Cambio Architect. -- Character of his Style. -- Wretched Condition of Florence in 1300. -- Dino Compagni's Chronicle. -- Charles of Valois at Florence. -- Dante Condemned and Banished. -- Death of Arnolfo. -- His Work in Florence. -- Palaces and Towers. -- Methods of Construction. -- Conflagration of 1304. -- Party Strife. -- Neglect of Work on the Cathedral. -- War with Castruccio Castracani. -- Burning of Cecco d'Ascoli. -- Effects of War. -- Charge of the Duomo Committed to the Art of Wool. -- Superintendence of Public Works by the Arts. -- The Baptistery in Charge of the Art of Calimala. -- Statute of the Art. -- Feast of St. John Baptist. -- Release of Prisoners. -- The Care of the Carroccio. -- Procurators at Rome. -- 1334: Giotto Chosen Chief Master of the Work of the Cathedral. -- His Work on it. -- His Bell-tower. -- His Death. -- The Plague of 1348. -- Its Effects in Florence. -- New Plans for the Duomo. -- Arnolfo's Design Abandoned. -- 1357: Work Begun on the New Design. -- Francesco Talenti Chief Master. -- Character of the New Design. -- Change in Architectural Taste. -- Progress of the Work till the Beginning of Fifteenth Century. Page 181

II. THE DOME OF BRUNELLESCHI.

Picture in the Spanish Chapel in which the Duomo is Represented. -- The Problem of the Dome. -- The Doors of the Baptistery. -- Competition of 1401. -- Brunelleschi and Ghiberti. -- Decision in Favor of Ghiberti. -- The Biographers of Brunelleschi. -- Brunelleschi's Journey to Rome. -- Its Object. -- His Studies there. -- Progress of Work on the Duomo. -- Designs for the Dome. -- Deliberations of the Opera. -- Competition. -- Brunelleschi's Advice and Model. -- Donatello Assists him. -- Brunelleschi's Project. -- Its Novelty and Boldness. -- Decision in its Favor. -- 1420: Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, and Battista d' Antonio Chosen Chief Master-builders. -- Group of Artists at Florence. -- Artistic Spirit of the Florentines. -- Story of Building of the Cupola as told by Vasari. -- Character of Vasari's Lives. -- Giovanni di Gherardo's Sonnet and Remonstrance. -- Progress of the Work. -- Ghiberti's Incompetence. -- Ruse of Brunelleschi. -- 1432: Close of Ghiberti's Connection with the Work. -- Incidents of Building. -- War with Filippo Visconti. -- Slackness in Progress. -- Renewal of Activity in Building. -- 1434: Completion of Dome. -- Pope Eugenius IV. in Florence. -- 1436: Consecration of the Duomo. -- The Lives of Vespasiano da Bisticci. -- Cosimo de' Medici. -- Activity of the Arts. -- Benediction of the Cupola. -- Leon Battista Alberti. -- Dedication of his Treatise on Painting to Brunelleschi. -- The Lantern. -- Decision in Favor of Brunelleschi's Model. . . .

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