Reform in China: Challenges & Choices : a Summary and Analysis of the Cesrri Survey

Reform in China: Challenges & Choices : a Summary and Analysis of the Cesrri Survey

Reform in China: Challenges & Choices : a Summary and Analysis of the Cesrri Survey

Reform in China: Challenges & Choices : a Summary and Analysis of the Cesrri Survey

Synopsis

This work includes every Supreme Court case relevant to gender and sexual equality from 1787 to the end of the 1999/2000 term. It is a primary document reference book, organized in eight chapters, including civil and social rights and duties; morality and sexual ethics; and education policies.

Excerpt

Bruce L. Reynolds

Challenges and Choices presents the fruits of what is arguably the most extraordinary empirical investigation undertaken in twentieth-century China. In the spring of 1985, China was trying to evaluate the second major push on the "reform" front. In 1979-80, the agricultural sector had felt the force of the reformers' zeal, with electrifying results: stimulated by the strong incentive efforts of a return to quasi-private property, peasants increased effort (and output) to unprecedented levels. In October 1984, the party had issued a clarion call to push reform into China's cities--into the industrial sector. Here, reformers found the going considerably rougher than in agriculture, both because the issue of who shall "own" industrial capital is less tractable than creating quasi-ownership of agricultural land, and because industrial production involves coordination of a large number of specialized producers.

Thus in 1985, the question was: how is reform faring, and what should be done next? Storm warnings were up: the dramatic decentralization of decision-making power had generated massive imbalances. In foreign trade, China's imports had increased vastly more than exports; in early 1985, the resulting hemorrhage of foreign exchange led to a sharp recentralization of trade powers. Domestically, factory managers and local governments had used their new powers to launch new investment projects, build better housing, or simply raise wages; this wave of purchasing power generated an alarming burst of inflation.

It was in this context that the China Economic System Reform Research Institute (CESRRI) launched its research project. This fledgling organization, with a strikingly young staff (average age thirty-five), is lodged directly below the State Council (China's cabinet) and has won the strong patronage of Premier Zhao Ziyang. The enthusiasm of its members for sustained reform is clear. The older members of the group, aged fifteen to twenty when the Cultural Revolution broke out in 1966, were profoundly influenced by that event. Many see reform as . . .

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