Military Geology and Topography: A Presentation of Certain Phases of Geology, Geography and Topography for Military Purposes

Military Geology and Topography: A Presentation of Certain Phases of Geology, Geography and Topography for Military Purposes

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Military Geology and Topography: A Presentation of Certain Phases of Geology, Geography and Topography for Military Purposes

Military Geology and Topography: A Presentation of Certain Phases of Geology, Geography and Topography for Military Purposes

Read FREE!

Excerpt

The consideration of the manner of occurrence, behavior, and adaptability of earth materials is essential to the effective and intelligent conduct of military operations. Earth materials are dealt with in the tunnels and mines under "No Man's Land" and in the trenches, gun pits, and dugouts along the front. The nature of the materials that make up the surface of the ground determines the form and size of shell craters and in a measure the effect of shell fire. Earth materials form the foundations of heavy artillery. They support and surface the overburdened roads. They are in many places the source of water supply and in some places the receptacle of sewage and drainage; consequently they are related to the problems of army hygiene. Back of the lines the case of construction and security of military railroads, which must be built with great rapidity and in the face of many difficulties, are dependent on the character of the earth materials. The proper construction of foundations and supports for the great warehouses, shops, docks, and other structures depends on the nature of the underlying rock and earth. The location and construction of harbors require in advance a knowledge of the rock and earth material to be encountered.

It is obvious that strategic necessities may prevent the choice for military operations of the locality that is most desirable with reference to the rocks at and beneath the surface. This possibility emphasizes the importance of knowing and understanding the properties of rocks in order to solve problems arising from enforced undesirable locations and the necessity of introducing into the strategic considerations which determine locations a thorough knowledge of subsurface conditions. Furthermore, it is of the highest importance to know what subsurface conditions the enemy is finding and how he is meeting those conditions.

EARTH MATERIALS.

Nature and origin. --It is a matter of common observation and knowledge that the surface of the earth consists largely of various . . .

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