This study was completed precisely twenty years ago with the exception of the final summary chapter. At the time, I had intended to push forward to cover the 1930s and the post-1945 era, but as sometimes happens, I became involved in other projects and set this work aside. The manuscript was given to various colleagues, Japanese and American, and their comments were solicited. In their subsequent writings, some of these individuals cited the study in manuscript form (and wrote me privately, asking when it would be published).
Since that time, a number of other studies bearing directly or indirectly upon the subject matter of this work have been published. I have read those that have come to my attention, and have cited them in the footnotes as appropriate. However, it did not seem to me necessary to alter the text for several reasons. First, this study derives very largely from primary sources and interviews. I obtained the data essentially from the labor and political journals of the period and from the written accounts of the leading participants. It was also my privilege to conduct a series of interviews in the late 1950s with individuals active in the early labor movement, interviews that were then utilized in collaborating or altering the information derived from written sources. Second, my interpretation differs significantly from the few closely related studies that have subsequently appeared.
One's memory fades after twenty years, and I greatly fear that I may have omitted the names of some of the individuals who were of help in connection with this research. Let me express a precautionary apology here, along with my thanks to one and all. Among the individuals who read the manuscript and commented upon it, George Beckmann, Chalmers Johnson, Ōkōchi Kazuo, Irwin Scheiner, Thomas Smith, Sumiya Mikio and George Totten were of special assistance. Those who were gracious in giving their time for interviews included Doi Naosaku, Fukumoto Kazuo, Ibori Shigeo, Kanemasa Yonekichi, Matsuoka Komakichi, Miki Jirō, Nabeyama Sadachika, Nishio Suehiro, Nosaka Sanzō, Sano Manabu, Tsujii Taminosuke, and Yamakawa Hitoshi.
Primary source materials were not always easy to locate and obtain, and I am greatly indebted to the librarians of Tokyo University, the Tokyo Diet Library, Ueno Library, the Hoover Institution, and the University of California, Berkeley, for their painstaking efforts in the search. It was also my pleasure to have several . . .