The Nature of Expertise

The Nature of Expertise

The Nature of Expertise

The Nature of Expertise

Synopsis

In the era of increasing urban globalisation, are European cities keeping pace? Or are contemporary European cities and societies remaining firmly rooted within a national context in spite of the inexorable pressures of transnational influences? Globalised Minds, Roots in the City explores the role of urban upper middle classes in the transformations experienced by contemporary European societies. Utilising empirical evidence garnered from business professionals and managers from Lyon, Madrid, Milan, and Paris, the authors present a wealth of new insights to contribute to current debates on the emergence of a transnational bourgeoisie. Their findings reveal how the majority of European managers remain profoundly embedded and territorialised in their cities and neighborhoods-whatever their level of transnational mobility. They also show how these groups are simultaneously becoming more cosmopolitan and more locally rooted. Globalised Minds, Roots in the City offers timely insights into the current state of Europe's cities and societies-and the seemingly paradoxical development of a European and transnational urban middle class.

Excerpt

The other chapters in this book are concerned primarily with expertise in mental tasks. Even though an expert waiter or radiologist may use motor skills, such as speech and handwriting, the motor skills themselves are not of direct interest to most investigators. This chapter, on the other hand, is concerned with the acquisition and performance of the motor skill of typewriting. Motor skills provide a unique psychological insight, because they are the direct, concrete product of the large amount of mental processing required for the planning, coordination, and control of actions. From a practical standpoint, motor skills offer a unique advantage to the scientist studying expertise. Most of the interesting events in mental skills go on inside the head, and are hidden from our view. The scientist must make indirect inferences about these mental events from such data as reaction times and verbal protocols. In contrast, the normal performance of a motor skill produces an externally observable sequence of events that are directly related to the task.

It is clear from anatomical studies of the brain, and observation of patients with brain injury, that even in humans a large portion of the brain is involved in the performance of motor skills. Some motor skills, such as walking and speech, develop in childhood as the motor system itself develops, and are normally acquired without special effort. Other motor skills, such as juggling, playing piano, or flying an airplane, although based on existing perceptual and motor skills, require special instruction to acquire and gain expertise. Expertise in typewriting belongs in the latter class.

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.