Georgia O'Keeffe

Georgia O'Keeffe (ōkēf´), 1887–1986, American painter, b. Sun Prairie, Wis. After working briefly as a commercial artist in Chicago, O'Keeffe abandoned painting until she began the study of abstract design with A. W. Dow at Columbia Univ. Teachers College. Thereafter she taught art in Texas. Her work was first exhibited in 1916 at the 291 Gallery of Alfred Stieglitz, whom she married in 1924. Immaculate, sculptural, organic forms painted in strong, clear colors predominate in her works. Living much of her life in New Mexico, O'Keeffe employed numerous Southwestern motifs such as bleached bones, barren, rolling hills, clouds, and desert blooms. Cow's Skull, Red, White, and Blue (1931; Metropolitan Mus.) is characteristic. Her pristine abstract designs carry strong elements of sexual symbolism—especially her flower paintings, her most personal works. Using a photographic close-up technique, she revealed the exquisite recesses of calla lilies, orchids, and hollyhocks. Her later works are more purely abstract. O'Keeffe is represented in a Santa Fe museum devoted to her works and in major museums nationwide.

See her collected drawings (1968), and B. B. Lynes, ed., Georgia O'Keeffe: Catalogue Raisonné (2 vol., 1999); S. Greenough, ed., My Faraway One: Selected Letters of Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz (1 vol., 2011–); biographies by L. Lisle (1987), R. Robinson (1989), and H. Drohojowska-Philp (2004); J. Cowart et al., Georgia O'Keeffe: Art and Letters (1987); B. Haskell, ed., Georgia O'Keeffe: Abstraction (2009).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Georgia O'Keeffe: Selected full-text books and articles

Painting with O'Keeffe
John D. Poling.
Texas Tech University Press, 1999
The Expanding Discourse: Feminism and Art History
Norma Broude; Mary D. Garrard.
Westview Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 25 "Georgia O'Keeffe and Feminism: A Problem of Position"
The Image of Thought: Achromatics in O'Keeffe and Beckett
Jeffers, Jennifer M.
Mosaic (Winnipeg), Vol. 29, No. 4, December 1996
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Critical Issues in American Art: A Book of Readings
Mary Ann Calo.
Westview Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 16 "Who Will Paint New York?: The World's New Art Center and the New York Paintings of Georgia O'Keeffe"
The Harlem Renaissance: The One and the Many
Mark Helbling.
Greenwood Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "'Worlds of Shadow-Planes and Solids Silently Moving': Jean Toomer, Alfred Stieglitz, Georgia O'Keeffe, and Waldo Frank"
"Untamable Texts": The Art of Georgia O'Keeffe and Eudory Welty
Claxton, Mae Miller.
The Mississippi Quarterly, Vol. 56, No. 2, Spring 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Against the Disappearance of Literature: Essays, Interludes, Dialogues, Invocations on the Creating Word
Arlene Zekowski.
Whitston, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 42 "A Visit with Georgia O'Keeffe"
Books and Reading in the Lives of Notable Americans: A Biographical Sourcebook
John A. McCrossan.
Greenwood Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: "Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986)" begins on p. 177
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