John Constable

John Constable, 1776–1837, English painter, b. Suffolk. Constable and Turner were the leading figures in English landscape painting of the 19th cent. Constable became famous for his landscapes of Suffolk, Hampstead, Salisbury, and Brighton. The son of a prosperous miller, he showed artistic talent while very young but did not devote himself to art until he was 23, when he went to London to study at the Royal Academy. Influenced by the 17th-century landscape painters Ruisdael and Claude Lorrain, his poetic approach to nature paralleled in spirit that of his contemporary, the poet Wordsworth. Constable's direct observations of nature and his free use of broken color were extraordinary in his day. He received but modest recognition in England, being tardily admitted to the Royal Academy in 1829. His work was more popular in France. In 1824, his View on the Stour (1819) and The Hay Wain (1821; National Gall., London) were exhibited at the Salon in Paris, winning gold medals. His work made a profound impression on the French romantics including the young Delacroix and Bonington. Later his painting influenced the Barbizon school and, more indirectly, the general course of French 19th-century landscape art. In the United States he is represented in the Metropolitan Museum and the Frick Collection, New York City, in the Mellon Center for British Art, New Haven, Conn., and in the galleries of Philadelphia, Toledo, and Chicago. Splendid examples of his work are contained in the National Gallery, London and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

See catalog of the latter collection by G. Reynolds (1960); C. R. Leslie, Memoirs of the Life of John Constable (enl. ed. 1937); collections of his letters by P. Holmes (1931) and R. B. Beckett (1962); biography by B. Taylor (1973); studies by C. Peacock (rev. ed. 1972) and R. Gadney (1976).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

John Constable: Selected full-text books and articles

The Discovery of Constable By Ian Fleming-Williams; Leslie Parris Holmes & Meier Publishing, 1984
John Constable's Clouds By Kurt Badt Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1950
Masterpieces of English Painting By Hans Huth Art Institute of Chicago, 1946
Life Slips: Work, Love, and Gender in John Constable's Correspondence By Broughton, Trev Lynn Studies in the Literary Imagination, Vol. 43, No. 1, Spring 2010
English Art, 1800-1870 By T. S. R. Boase Clarendon Press, 1959
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "Turner and Constable"
Landscape Painting By Kenneth Clark Charles Scribner's Sons, 1950
Librarian's tip: Chap. Five: The Natural Vision
The Economics of Taste: The Rise and Fall of Picture Prices, 1760-1960 By Gerald Reitlinger Barrie and Rockliff, 1961
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "The Rewards of the Living Painter: The Proto-Victorians, 1800-1860"
Letters of the Great Artists: From Blake to Pollock By Richard Friedenthal Random House, vol.2, 1963
Librarian's tip: Includes letters by John Constable
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
A Century of British Painters By Richard Redgrave; Samuel Redgrave Phaidon Press, 1947
Librarian's tip: Chap. XXVII "Constable and other Landscape Painters"
FREE! The History of Modern Painting By Richard Muther J.M. Dent & Sons, vol.2, 1907 (Revised edition)
Librarian's tip: "Constable" begins on p. 99
FREE! Old English Masters By John C. Van Dyke The Century Co., 1902
Librarian's tip: Chap. XV "John Constable"
The Romantics By Stephen Prickett Holmes & Meier, 1981
Librarian's tip: Discussion of John Constable begins on p. 97
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