Max Ernst

Max Ernst (mäks ĕrnst) 1891–1976, German painter. After World War I, Ernst joined the Dada movement in Paris and then became a founder of surrealism. Apart from the medium of collage, for which he is well known, Ernst developed other devices to express his fantastic vision. In frottage he rubbed black chalk on paper held against various materials such as leaves, wood, and fabrics to achieve bizarre effects. He was also the author of several volumes of collage novels. A note of whimsy often characterizes his dreamlike landscapes while other works reveal an allegorical imagination. Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale and several other works are in the Museum of Modern Art, New York City.

See his Beyond Painting (1948); studies by J. Russell (1967) and U. M. Schneede (1973); R. Rainwater, Max Ernst, Beyond Surrealism: An Exhibition of the Artist's Books and Prints (1986); W. A. Camfield, ed., Max Ernst: Dada and the Dawn of Surrealism (1993); W. Spies, ed., Max Ernst: A Retrospective (2005).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Max Ernst: Selected full-text books and articles

Max Ernst By William S. Lieberman Museum of Modern Art, 1961
Max Ernst's Post-World War I Studies in Hysteria By Kavky, Samantha The Space Between, Vol. 8, No. 1, January 1, 2012
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Imagery of Surrealism By J. H. Matthews Syracuse University Press, 1977
Surrealism and the Exotic By Louise Tythacott Routledge, 2002
A Concise History of Modern Painting By Herbert Read Frederick A. Praeger, 1959
André Breton and the Basic Concepts of Surrealism By Michel Carrouges; Maura Prendergast University of Alabama Press, 1974
German Painting in Our Time By Gerhard Händler Rembrandt-Verlag, 1956
Librarian’s tip: "Surrealism" begins on p. 42
A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art By Ian Chilvers Oxford University Press, 1999
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