Advertising Research


advertising, in general, any openly sponsored offering of goods, services, or ideas through any medium of public communication. At its inception advertising was merely an announcement; for example, entrepreneurs in ancient Egypt used criers to announce ship and cargo arrivals. The invention of printing, however, may be said to have ushered in modern advertising. After the influence of salesmanship began to insert itself into public notice in the 18th cent., the present elaborate form of advertising began to evolve. The advertising agency, working on a commission basis, has been chiefly responsible for this evolution. The largest group of advertisers are the food marketers, followed by marketers of drugs and cosmetics, soaps, automobiles, tobacco, appliances, and oil products. The major U.S. advertising media include newspapers, magazines, television and radio, business publications, billboards, and circulars sent through the mail. With the advent of the wide availability of electronic mail and access to the World Wide Web in the 1990s, the Internet has also become an important advertising venue. An individual's interests, opinions, browsing history, and the like can be tracked and used by Internet firms to offer businesses, political organizations, and others the opportunity to target their advertising much more specifically than in the past. Such use has also been criticized as a violation of privacy, and is more restricted in the European Union. Since many large advertising agencies were once located on Madison Avenue in New York City, the term "Madison Avenue" is frequently used to symbolize the advertising business. The major criticisms of advertising are that it creates false values and impels people to buy things they neither need nor want and that, in fact, may be actually harmful (such as cigarettes). In reply, its defenders say that advertising is meant to sell products, not create values; that it can create a new market for products that fill a genuine, though latent, need; and that it furthers product improvement through free competition. The Association of National Advertisers and the American Association of Advertising Agencies, both founded in 1917, are the major associations.

See M. Mayer, Madison Avenue, U.S.A. (1958); R. Glatzer, The New Advertising (1970); R. Hovland and G. Wilcox, ed., Advertising in Society (1988); W. Wells et al., Advertising: Principles & Practice (4th ed. 1998); J. B. Twitchell, Adcult, USA (1995) and 20 Ads That Shook the World: The Century's Most Groundbreaking Advertising and How It Changed Us All (2000).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Advertising Research: Selected full-text books and articles

Attention, Attitude, and Affect in Response to Advertising By Eddie M. Clark; Timothy C. Brock; David W. Stewart Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994
Librarian's tip: Part I "Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Advertising Research"
Measuring Advertising Effectiveness By William D. Wells Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997
Librarian's tip: Chap. 2 "Research and the Meaning of Advertising Effectiveness: Mutual Misunderstandings"
Measuring the Effectiveness of Image and Linkage Advertising: The Nitty-Gritty of Maxi-Marketing By Arch G. Woodside Quorum Books, 1996
Librarian's tip: Chap. 7 "Applying the Long Interview in Linkage-Advertising Research"
Can the Truth Hurt? How Honest and Persuasive Advertising Can Unintentionally Lead to Increased Consumer Skepticism By Koslow, Scott The Journal of Consumer Affairs, Vol. 34, No. 2, Winter 2000
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Diversity in Advertising: Broadening the Scope of Research Directions By Jerome D. Williams; Wei-Na Lee; Curtis P. Haugtvedt Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004
Ratings Analysis: The Theory and Practice of Audience Research By James G. Webster; Patricia F. Phalen; Lawrence W. Lichty Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000 (2nd edition)
Librarian's tip: Chap. 2 "Audience Research in Advertising"
An Integrated Approach to Communication Theory and Research By Michael B. Salwen; Don W. Stacks Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996
Librarian's tip: Chap. 14 "Advertising"
Values, Lifestyles, and Psychographics By Lynn R. Kahle; Larry Chiagouris Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997
Librarian's tip: Chap. 21 "Cross-Cultural Values Research: Implications for International Advertising"
Global and Multi-National Advertising By Basil G. Englis Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994
Librarian's tip: Chap. 1 "International Advertising Research and International Communication Theory"
Emotion in Advertising: Theoretical and Practical Explorations By Stuart J. Agres; Julie A. Edell; Tony M. Dubitsky Quorum Books, 1990
Librarian's tip: Chap. 2 "On Using Classical Conditioning Methods for Researching the Impact of Ad-Evoked Feelings"
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