Jean-Luc Godard

Jean-Luc Godard (zhäN-lük gôdär´), 1930–, French film director and scriptwriter, b. Paris. He wrote criticism for a number of Parisian cinema journals in the early 1950s before embarking on his filmmaking career. Godard is probably the most influential of the French New Wave directors. His highly personal films are marked by a freewheeling approach to style, content, genre, continuity in time, and story structure, and he initiated techniques that broke with traditional film narrative. In his first feature film, Breathless (1959), he introduced a number of innovative features. These include the jump cut, editing scenes so that only the beginning and end of an action are shown; the use of written material, interviews, and other documentarylike techniques to confuse the boundary between fiction and fact; and the introduction of himself as a character and commentator. Films of the next decade, such as Contempt (1963), Pierre le Fou (1965), La Chinoise, and Weekend (both: 1967), are openly essayistic in form and less concerned with character and story than with ideas and analysis of social issues. The 15 films made from 1959 to 1967 form the main basis of his reputation as one of the late 20th-century's great filmmakers.

Increasingly interested in and devoted to Marxist and Maoist philosophies, Godard for a period subsumed his identity into that of a filmmaking collective. After some years of inactivity, he returned in 1980 with Every Man for Himself and has since directed such films as Hail Mary (1985) and Hélas pour Moi (1994), both of which explore the possibility of the divine playing a role in everyday contemporary life, and Forever Mozart (1996). His eight-part Histoire(s) du Cinéma (1988–98) is an extremely personal meditation on the history and nature of cinematic art. Godard's 21st-century films include In Praise of Love (2001), a mournful study of the precarious nature of historical memory in a mass-media age, the three-part Notre Musique (2004), which uses the structure of Dante's Divine Comedy to examine humanity's thirst for destruction and document the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the 3-D Goodbye to Language (2014), a beautiful, evocative visual essay that defies meaning.

See his autobiographical film, JLG/JLG (1994), and Godard on Godard (1968; tr. 1972, repr. 1986), a collection of early writings; R. Brody, Everything Is Cinema: The Working Life of Jean-Luc Godard (2008); C. MacCabe, Godard: A Portrait of the Artist at Seventy (2004); studies by T. Mussman, ed. (1968), C. Barr (1970), R. Roud (1980), C. MacCabe (1981), Y. Loshitzky (1995), W. W. Dixon (1997), K. Silverman and H. Farocki (1998), and D. Sterritt (1999); Two in the Wave (documentary, dir. by E. Laurent, 2009).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Jean-Luc Godard: Selected full-text books and articles

Late Godard and the Possibilities of Cinema By Daniel Morgan University of California Press, 2012
Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings By Leo Eubank; Marshall Cohen Oxford University Press, 2004 (6th edition)
Librarian's tip: "Godard and Counter Cinema: Vent D'Est" begins on p. 525
Jean-Luc Godard's Hail Mary: Women and the Sacred in Film By Jean Luc Godard; Anne-Marie Miéville; Maryel Locke; Charles Warren Southern Illinois University Press, 1993
The Reel Shakespeare: Alternative Cinema and Theory By Lisa S. Starks; Courtney Lehmann Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2002
Librarian's tip: "Cinema Hysterica Passio: Voice and Gaze in Jean-Luc Godard's King Lear" begins on p. 59
Becoming Film Literate: The Art and Craft of Motion Pictures By Vincent Lobrutto Praeger, 2005
Librarian's tip: Chap. 48 "The Essay Film: Weekend"
Modern/Postmodern: A Study in Twentieth-Century Arts and Ideas By Silvio Gaggi University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989
Librarian's tip: "Godard's Breathless" begins on p. 89
Walls Have Feelings: Architecture, Film, and the City By Katherine Shonfield Routledge, 2000
Librarian's tip: Chap. 5 "Free Circulation = Free Copulation: Women and Roads in Nana and Two or Three Things I Know about Her"
In Praise of Godard's in Praise of Love By Dixon, Wheeler Winston Film Criticism, Vol. 27, No. 3, Spring 2003
Dostoevski and the Human Condition after a Century By Alexej Ugrinsky; Frank S. Lambasa; Valija K. Ozolins Greenwood Press, 1986
Librarian's tip: Chap. 14 "Dostoevski and Jean-Luc Godard: Kirillov's Return in La Chinoise"
A History of Narrative Film By David A. Cook W.W. Norton, 1996 (3rd edition)
Librarian's tip: "Jean-Luc Godard" begins on p. 541
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