Isocrates (īsŏk´rətēz), 436–338 BC, one of the Ten Attic Orators. He was a pupil of Socrates and of the Sophists. Perhaps the greatest teacher in Greek history, he taught every younger orator of his time. He did not deliver his speeches, but either wrote for litigants (six such speeches survive) or wrote discourses to be read (15 of which remain) dealing mainly with politics and education. Panegyricus (in which he urges Hellenic unity against Persia) is his most celebrated oration. Isocrates committed suicide (according to tradition) after the defeat of Athens by Philip II of Macedon at Chaeronea.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Isocrates: Selected full-text books and articles

Isocrates By Isocrates; George Norlin William Heinemann, vol.1, 1928
The Rise of Rhetoric and Its Intersections with Contemporary Critical Thought By Omar Swartz Westview Press, 1998
Librarian's tip: Chap. 3 "Isocrates"
Greek Oratory: Tradition and Originality By Stephen A. Usher Oxford University, 1999
Librarian's tip: "Isocrates Logographos" begins on p. 118 and Chap. 9 "Isocrates Sophistes"
The Epistemic Music of Rhetoric: Toward the Temporal Dimension of Affect in Reader Response and Writing By Steven B. Katz Southern Illinois University Press, 1996
Librarian's tip: "Isocrates: The Sophistic Connection" begins on p. 95
A New History of Classical Rhetoric By George A. Kennedy Princeton University Press, 1994
Librarian's tip: "Isocrates" begins on p. 43 and Chap. 4 "The Attic Orators"
The Contemporary Reception of Classical Rhetoric: Appropriations of Ancient Discourse By Kathleen E. Welch Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990
Librarian's tip: Chap. 5 "Appropriating Competing Systems of Classical Greek Rhetoric: Considering Isocrates and Gorgias with Plato in the New Rhetoric of the Fourth Century B.C."
Epochs of Greek and Roman Biography By Duane Reed Stuart University of California Press, 1928
Librarian's tip: Chap. IV "A Question of Priority: The Pretensions of Isocrates"
Byzantine Studies and Other Essays By Norman H. Baynes Athlone Press, 1955
Librarian's tip: Chap. VIII "Isocrates"
Political Interpretations in Greek Literature By T. B. L. Webster Manchester University Press, 1948
Librarian's tip: Chap. IX "Isocrates and Demosthenes"
Theopompus of Chios: History and Rhetoric in the Fourth Century BC By Michael Attyah Flower Clarendon Press, 1997
Librarian's tip: Chap. 3 "Theopompus, Isocrates, and the Myth of Rhetorical History"
The Shadow of Sparta By Anton Powell; Stephen Hodkinson Routledge, 1994
Librarian's tip: Chap. VII "Images of Sparta: Writer and Audience in Isocrates¿ Panathenaicus"
Rhetoric, the Polis, and the Global Village: Selected Papers from the 1998 Thirtieth Anniversary Rhetoric Society of America Conference By Dave Pruett; C. Jan Swearingen Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999
Librarian's tip: "Orality, Literacy, and Isocrates' Political Aesthetics" begins on p. 83
A History of Greek Political Thought By T. A. Sinclair Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952
Librarian's tip: Chap. VII "Plato and Isocrates"
Internal Rhetorics: Toward a History and Theory of Self-Persuasion By Jean Nienkamp Southern Illinois University Press, 2001
Librarian's tip: "Isocrates on the Indivisibility of Logos" begins on p. 16
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