Advertising's Effect on Children

advertising

advertising, in general, any openly sponsored offering of goods, services, or ideas through any medium of public communication. At its inception advertising was merely an announcement; for example, entrepreneurs in ancient Egypt used criers to announce ship and cargo arrivals. The invention of printing, however, may be said to have ushered in modern advertising. After the influence of salesmanship began to insert itself into public notice in the 18th cent., the present elaborate form of advertising began to evolve. The advertising agency, working on a commission basis, has been chiefly responsible for this evolution. The largest group of advertisers are the food marketers, followed by marketers of drugs and cosmetics, soaps, automobiles, tobacco, appliances, and oil products. The major U.S. advertising media include newspapers, magazines, television and radio, business publications, billboards, and circulars sent through the mail. With the advent of the wide availability of electronic mail and access to the World Wide Web in the 1990s, the Internet has also become an important advertising venue. An individual's interests, opinions, browsing history, and the like can be tracked and used by Internet firms to offer businesses, political organizations, and others the opportunity to target their advertising much more specifically than in the past. Such use has also been criticized as a violation of privacy, and is more restricted in the European Union. Since many large advertising agencies were once located on Madison Avenue in New York City, the term "Madison Avenue" is frequently used to symbolize the advertising business. The major criticisms of advertising are that it creates false values and impels people to buy things they neither need nor want and that, in fact, may be actually harmful (such as cigarettes). In reply, its defenders say that advertising is meant to sell products, not create values; that it can create a new market for products that fill a genuine, though latent, need; and that it furthers product improvement through free competition. The Association of National Advertisers and the American Association of Advertising Agencies, both founded in 1917, are the major associations.

See M. Mayer, Madison Avenue, U.S.A. (1958); R. Glatzer, The New Advertising (1970); R. Hovland and G. Wilcox, ed., Advertising in Society (1988); W. Wells et al., Advertising: Principles & Practice (4th ed. 1998); J. B. Twitchell, Adcult, USA (1995) and 20 Ads That Shook the World: The Century's Most Groundbreaking Advertising and How It Changed Us All (2000).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Advertising's Effect on Children: Selected full-text books and articles

Children as Consumers: Advertising and Marketing By Calvert, Sandra L The Future of Children, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 2008
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Rethinking Regulation of Advertising Aimed at Children By Ramsey, William A Federal Communications Law Journal, Vol. 58, No. 2, April 2006
Advertising to Children on TV: Content, Impact, and Regulation By Barrie Gunter; Caroline Oates; Mark Blades Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005
Television and Child Development By Judith Van Evra Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004 (3rd edition)
Parental Mediation of Undesired Advertising Effects By Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 2005
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Effects of Advertising, Social Influences, and Self-Efficacy on Adolescent Tobacco Use and Alcohol Consumption By Kinard, Brian R.; Webster, Cynthia The Journal of Consumer Affairs, Vol. 44, No. 1, Spring 2010
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Food Marketing to Youth: Pervasive, Powerful, and Pernicious By Schwartz, Marlene B.; Kunkel, Dale; DeLucia, Sarah Communication Research Trends, Vol. 32, No. 2, June 2013
The Impact of Television Advertising on Children's Christmas Wishes By Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 44, No. 3, Summer 2000
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Influences Exerted on the Child Viewer When Exposed to Violent Imagery in Television and Print Advertising By Shimanovsky, Michael; Lewis, Barbara Jo Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 1-2, October 2006
Marketing Violence: The Special Toll on Young Children of Color By Levin, Diane E.; Carlsson-Paige, Nancy The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 72, No. 4, Fall 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Social Marketing and Distracted Driving Behaviors among Young Adults: The Effectiveness of Fear Appeals By Lennon, Ron; Rentfro, Randall; O'Leary, Bay Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, July 2010
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Intoxicating Brands: Alcohol Advertising and Youth By Jernigan, David Multinational Monitor, Vol. 29, No. 1, July-August 2008
The Influence of Individual Factors on the Effectiveness of Message Content in Antismoking Advertisements Aimed at Adolescents By Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann The Journal of Consumer Affairs, Vol. 40, No. 2, Winter 2006
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
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