parole (pərōl´), in criminal law, release from prison of a convict before the expiration of his term on condition that his activities be restricted and that he report regularly to an officer. The convict generally remains under sentence, and the restrictions (as of residence, occupation, type of associates) and the supervision are intended to prevent a relapse into crime. Any violation of parole may result in return to imprisonment. The procedure of parole is regulated by statute in the jurisdictions of the United States. It is less often administered directly by the executive than it is by a board or officer with the power to release a convict after he has served the minimum of an indeterminate sentence. Parole is designed to give the prisoner a chance to readjust and to expedite the process of rehabilitation. In military law, a parole is the promise by a prisoner of war on being released from confinement that he will remain in a stipulated place, not attempt to escape, and not take up arms again in the current hostilities against the forces that captured him.

See studies by G. Cavender (1982) and H. E. Allen (1985).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2017, The Columbia University Press.

Parole: Selected full-text books and articles

When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry By Joan Petersilia Oxford University Press, 2003
Releasing Prisoners, Redeeming Communities: Reentry, Race, and Politics By Anthony C. Thompson New York University Press, 2008
Librarian's tip: Especially Chap. 8 "Reentry and Parole"
Life without Parole: America's New Death Penalty? By Charles J. Ogletree Jr.; Austin Sarat New York University Press, 2012
Downsizing Prisons: How to Reduce Crime and End Mass Incarceration By Michael Jacobson New York University Press, 2005
Librarian's tip: Especially Chap. 5 "Why Parole and Probation Policies Need to Change"
The Future of Imprisonment By Michael Tonry Oxford University Press, 2004
Librarian's tip: Chap. 8 "Questioning the Conventional Wisdom of Parole Release Authority"
Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age By Bernard E. Harcourt University of Chicago Press, 2007
Librarian's tip: Especially Chap. 2 "Ernest W. Burgess and Parole Prediction" and Appendix A "Retracing the Parole-Prediction Debate and Literature"
The Handbook of Crime & Punishment By Michael Tonry Oxford University Press, 2000
Librarian's tip: Chap. 21 "Probation and Parole"
Community-Focused Parole By Evans, Donald G Corrections Today, Vol. 68, No. 7, December 2006
Parole Boards Are Worth Saving By Hughes, Gail Corrections Today, Vol. 69, No. 4, August 2007
Parole Release Decisions: Impact of Positive and Negative Victim and Nonvictim Input on a Representative Sample of Parole-Eligible Inmates By Caplan, Joel M Violence and Victims, Vol. 25, No. 2, March 1, 2010
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Normative Elements of Parole Risk By Ball, W. David Stanford Law & Policy Review, Vol. 22, No. 2, Spring 2011
Predicting the Outcome of Parole Hearings By Tewksbury, Richard; Connor, David Patrick Corrections Today, Vol. 74, No. 3, June-July 2012
Note: Policing Parole: The Constitutional Limits of Back-End Sentencing By McBride, Elizabeth C Stanford Law & Policy Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Spring 2009
Off the Mapp: Parole Revocation Hearings and the Fourth Amendment By Stevens, Duncan N Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 89, No. 3, Spring 1999
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