George Soros

George Soros (sôr´ōs), 1930–, American stock trader and philanthropist, b. Budapest, Hungary, as George Schwartz. He studied under Sir Karl Popper at the London School of Economics (grad. 1952). He emigrated from Hungary to Great Britain (1947) and then to the United States (1956). Soros mostly worked as a financial analyst, and in 1969 he founded the first of his offshore hedge funds. His Quantum funds grew in value tremendously, partly through speculation in foreign currency. He earned (1992) $1 billion on the fall of the British pound and notoriety as "the man who broke the Bank of England." In the late 1990s, financial analysts and government officials charged that this speculation had helped destabilize Asian and Latin American national economies. His reputation for financial acumen was tarnished somewhat, however, when the value of the funds fell 20% in early 2000.

As president of the Soros Management Fund, he has used his wealth to create a network of wealthy foundations, many of which are intended to aid former Communist countries in creating the kind of anti-Marxist "open society" advocated by Popper. Others fund health initiatives and aid immigrants in the United States. He also established (1991) the Central European Univ., based in Budapest. In the United States, he has funded political campaigns, most notably by organizations opposed to President George W. Bush. Soros has written several books, including Opening the Soviet System (1990; rev. ed. 1991), The Alchemy of Finance (1994), The Crisis of Global Capitalism (1998), Open Society: Reforming Global Capitalism (2000), and The Bubble of American Supremacy: Correcting the Misuse of American Power (2003).

See his autobiography Soros on Soros (with B. Wien and K. Koenen, 1995); biographies by R. Slater (1995) and M. T. Kaufman (2002).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

George Soros: Selected full-text books and articles

The Philanthropy of George Soros: Building Open Societies
Chuck Sudetic.
Public Affairs, 2011
The Soros Lectures: At the Central European University
George Soros.
Public Affairs, 2010
Open Society: Reforming Global Capitalism
George Soros.
Public Affairs, 2000
The Crisis of Global Capitalism: Open Society Endangered
George Soros.
PublicAffairs, 1998
George Soros on Globalization
George Soros.
Public Affairs, 2005
A Dialog with George Soros
Soros, George; Kaletsky, Anatole.
Business Economics, Vol. 48, No. 2, April 2013
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
John Arlidge Sits Down with Billionaire-Provocateur George Soros
Arlidge, John.
Newsweek, Vol. 159, No. 05, January 30, 2012
The Imperfect World of George Soros
Freeland, Chrystia.
Foreign Policy, No. 197, December 2012
Entrepreneurial Economics
Keith Glancey; Ronald W. McQuaid; Jo Campling.
Macmillan Company, 2000
Librarian’s tip: "Arbitrage and Entrepreneurship: George Soros" p. 64
The Billionaire Trader Has Become Eastern Europe's Uncrowned King and the Prophet of "The Open Society". but Open to What? (Profile)
Clark, Neil.
New Statesman (1996), Vol. 132, No. 4640, June 2, 2003
The Market or the Public Domain? Global Governance and the Asymmetry of Power
Daniel Drache.
Routledge, 2001
Librarian’s tip: "Philanthropy Turned Crusade? The Case of the Soros Foundations" begins on p. 137
Straddling Economics and Politics: Cross-Cutting Issues in Asia, the United States, and the Global Economy
Charles Wolf.
Rand, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 10 "The Crisis of George Soros"
The Destruction of the Soviet Economic System: An Insiders' History
Michael Ellman; Vladimir Kontorovich.
M. E. Sharpe, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "The Soros Initiative" begins on p. 238
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