Maria Montessori

Maria Montessori (märē´ä mōntās-sô´rē), 1870–1952, Italian educator and physician. She was the originator of the Montessori method of education for young children and was the first woman to receive (1894) a medical degree in Italy.

After working with subnormal children as a psychiatrist at the Univ. of Rome, Dr. Montessori was appointed (1898) director of the Orthophrenic School. There she pioneered in the instruction of retarded children, especially through the use of an environment rich in manipulative materials. In 1901 she left the school to embark on further study and to serve (1901–7) as lecturer in pedagogical anthropology at the Univ. of Rome. The success of her program at the Orthophrenic School, however, led her to believe that similar improvements could be made in the education of normal preschool children, and in 1907 she opened the first case dei bambini [children's house] as a day-care center in the San Lorenzo district of Rome. The success of this venture led Montessori and her followers to establish similar institutions in other parts of Europe and in the United States, where the first Montessori school was established (1912) in Tarrytown, N.Y.

In 1929 the Association Montessori Internationale was established to further the Montessori method by sponsoring conventions and training courses for teachers. By this time, however, interest in Montessori education had declined in a number of countries, especially the United States, mainly because of opposition from those who felt that the method was destructive of school discipline. The Montessori method experienced a renaissance in many American schools during the late 1950s, and in 1960 the American Montessori Society was formed.

The Montessori Method

The chief components of the Montessori method are self-motivation and autoeducation. Followers of the Montessori method believe that a child will learn naturally if put in an environment containing the proper materials. These materials, consisting of "learning games" suited to a child's abilities and interests, are set up by a teacher-observer who intervenes only when individual help is needed. In this way, Montessori educators try to reverse the traditional system of an active teacher instructing a passive class. The typical classroom in a Montessori school consists of readily available games and toys, household utensils, plants and animals that are cared for by the children, and child-sized furniture—the invention of which is generally attributed to Dr. Montessori. Montessori educators also stress physical exercise, in accordance with their belief that motor abilities should be developed along with sensory and intellectual capacities. The major outlines of the Montessori system are based on Dr. Montessori's writings, which include The Montessori Method (1912), Pedagogical Anthropology (1913), The Advanced Montessori Method (2 vol., 1917), and The Secret of Childhood (1936).


See E. M. Standing, Maria Montessori (1958, repr. 1962) and The Montessori Revolution (1966); biography by R. Kramer (1983).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Maria Montessori: Selected full-text books and articles

Maria Montessori: A Biography
Rita Kramer.
Perseus Books, 1988
Povell, Phyllis.
Montessori Life, Vol. 19, No. 1, January 1, 2007
The Secret of Childhood
Maria Montessori; Barbara Barclay Carter; Barbara Barclay Carter.
Orient Longmans, 1963
Montessori: The Science behind the Genius
Angeline Stoll Lillard.
Oxford University Press, 2005
Montessori for the New Millennium: Practical Guidance on the Teaching and Education of Children of All Ages, Based on a Rediscovery of the True Principles and Vision of Maria Montessori
Roland A. Lubienski Wentworth.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999
A Choice for Our Children: Curing the Crisis in America's Schools
Carlos A. Bonilla; Alan Bonsteel.
ICS Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 19 "La Dottoressa: Maria Montessori and Her School"
Learning from Our Mistakes: A Reinterpretation of Twentieth-Century Educational Theory
Henry J. Perkinson.
Greenwood Press, 1984
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Maria Montessori"
Lives in Education: A Narrative of People and Ideas
L. Glenn Smith; Joan K. Smith.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: "Maria Montessori (1870-1952)" begins on p. 356
Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook
Agnes N. O'Connell; Nancy Felipe Russo.
Greenwood Press, 1990
Librarian’s tip: "Maria Montessori (1870-1952)" begins on p. 246
Pioneers of Early Childhood Education: A Bio-Bibliographical Guide
Barbara Ruth Peltzman.
Greenwood Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "Maria Montessori (1870-1952)" begins on p. 83
A Curriculum for the Pre-School Child: Learning to Learn
Audrey Curtis.
Routledge, 2002 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: "Maria Montessori" begins on p. 6
The Imagination of Early Childhood Education
Harry Morgan.
Bergin & Garvey, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Montessori Imagination"
Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions
Barry J. Zimmerman; Dale H. Schunk.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Maria Montessori: Contributions to Educational Psychology"
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