Learning Disabilities

learning disabilities, in education, any of various disorders involved in understanding or using spoken or written language, including difficulties in listening, thinking, talking, reading, writing, spelling, or arithmetic. They may affect people of average or above-average intelligence. Learning disabilities include conditions referred to as perceptual handicaps, minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), dyslexia, developmental aphasia, and attentional deficit disorder (ADD); they do not include learning problems due to physical handicaps (e.g., impaired sight or hearing, or orthopedic disabilities), mental retardation, emotional disturbance, or cultural or environmental disadvantage. Techniques for remediation are highly individualized, including the simultaneous use of several senses (sight, hearing, touch), slow-paced instruction, and repetitive exercises to help make perceptual distinctions. Students are also assisted in compensating for their disabilities; for example, one with a writing disability may use a tape recorder for taking notes or answering essay questions. Behavior often associated with learning disabilities includes hyperactivity (hyperkinesis), short attention span, and impulsiveness. School programs for learning-disabled students range from a modified or supplemental program in regular classes to placement in a special school, depending upon the severity of the disability. The field of learning disabilities is considered to have emerged as a separate discipline in 1947 with the publication of the book Psychopathology and Education of the Brain-Injured Child by neuropsychiatrist Alfred A. Strauss and Laura E. Lehtinen. The need to help students with these disabilities was first recognized on the federal level in 1958, when Congress appropriated $1 million to train teachers for the mentally retarded. Famous people considered to have had a learning disability include Winston Churchill, Thomas Edison, and Nelson Rockefeller.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Learning Disabilities: Selected full-text books and articles

Handbook of Learning Disabilities By Karen R. Harris; H. Lee Swanson; Steve Graham Guilford Press, 2003
Identification of Learning Disabilities: Research to Practice By Renée Bradley; Louis Danielson; Daniel P. Hallahan Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002
Risk Assessment in People with Learning Disabilities By Carol Sellars Wiley-Blackwell, 2011 (2nd edition)
The Social Dimensions of Learning Disabilities: Essays in Honor of Tanis Bryan By Bernice Y. L. Wong; Mavis L. Donahue Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002
Nameless: Understanding Learning Disability By Dietmut Niedecken Brunner-Routledge, 2003
Parenting Children with Learning Disabilities By Jane Utley Adelizzi; Diane B. Goss Bergin and Garvey, 2001
Moderate Learning Difficulties and the Future of Inclusion By Brahm Norwich; Narcie Kelly RoutledgeFalmer, 2004
Going Forward: How the Field of Learning Disabilities Has and Will Contribute to Education By Lloyd, John Wills; Hallahan, Daniel P Learning Disability Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 2, Spring 2005
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Perceived Control and Adaptive Coping: Programs for Adolescent Students Who Have Learning Disabilities By Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Greaves, Daryl Learning Disability Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 3, Summer 2008
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Junior College Experience and Students with Learning Disabilities: Implications for Success at the Four Year University By Johnson, Gail; Zascavage, Victoria; Gerber, Sarah College Student Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4, December 2008
Complicating and Explicating: Taking Up Reason in Learning Disabilities Research By Bursuck, Wiliam Learning Disability Quarterly, Vol. 34, No. 2, Spring 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Middle and High School Students with Learning Disabilities: Practical Academic Interventions for General Education Teachers - a Review of the Literature By Anderson, Sheri; Yilmaz, Ozgul; Wasburn-Moses, Leah American Secondary Education, Vol. 32, No. 2, Spring 2004
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
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