Zimbabwean History

Zimbabwe (ruined city, Zimbabwe)

Zimbabwe (zĬmbäb´wā) [Bantu,=stone houses], ruined city, SE Zimbabwe, near Masvingo (formerly Fort Victoria). It was discovered by European explorers c.1870, and some believed it the biblical Ophir, where King Solomon had his mines. From 1890 to 1900 some 100,000 gold mining claims were staked out there, but all proved barren. Modern archaeological evidence has shown that Zimbabwe was first occupied by the earliest Iron Age people in the 3d cent. It was abandoned sometime thereafter until it was reoccupied in the late 9th cent. or early 10th cent. The remaining ruins include a massive wall, constructed in the 11th cent., a strong fortress, nearby dwellings, and an elliptically shaped enclosure, commonly called the Temple. The buildings were once richly decorated with stone carvings and gold and copper ornaments. Archaeologists believe that the city was constructed by a local African culture with little outside influence.

See G. Caton-Thompson, The Zimbabwe Culture (1970).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Zimbabwean History: Selected full-text books and articles

Culture and Customs of Zimbabwe
Oyekan Owomoyela.
Greenwood Press, 2002
From Civilization to Segregation: Social Ideals and Social Control in Southern Rhodesia, 1890-1934
Carol Summers.
Ohio University Press, 1994
Population Growth and Environmental Degradation in Southern Africa
Ezekiel Kalipeni.
Lynne Rienner, 1994
In the Footsteps of the Masters: Desmond M. Tutu and Abel T. Muzorewa
Dickson A. Mungazi.
Praeger, 2000
Government and Agriculture in Zimbabwe
William A. Masters.
Praeger, 1994
The Spirit of Development: Protestant NGOs, Morality, and Economics in Zimbabwe
Erica Bornstein.
Routledge, 2003
Black Peril, White Virtue: Sexual Crime in Southern Rhodesia, 1902-1935
Jock McCulloch.
Indiana University Press, 2000
Macroeconomic and Structural Adjustment Policies in Zimbabwe
Clever Mumbengegwi.
Palgrave, 2002
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