Zululand (zōō´lōōlănd´), historic region and home of the Zulus, c.10,000 sq mi (25,900 sq km), NE KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Zululand is bordered by the Indian Ocean on the east, by Mozambique on the north, and by Swaziland on the west. The terrain rises from a low coastal plain to the foothills of the Drakensberg Range. There are several game and forest reserves.

Although some corn is grown, the Zulu economy depends primarily on cattle raising. Zululand's two major commercial crops, sugarcane and cotton, are generally cultivated on white-owned coastal plantations. Sugar milling and some paper making are virtually the region's only industries. There is also considerable exploitation of wattle and eucalyptus.

The Zulus

The Zulus, who belong to the southern branch of the Nguni-speaking peoples, constitute the majority of the population, and Zulu is the chief language. Many Zulus still live as members of a traditional extended family in a fenced compound (kraal), headed by the oldest man. Members of the family occupy beehive-shaped huts in the enclosure of the kraal, within which the cattle are kept penned. The prolonged absence of a majority of the men, many of whom are employed in the distant cities and mines of South Africa has, however, weakened Zulu society. The name Zulu originally denoted a people that, migrating southward, reached the area around the Tugela River in the late 17th cent.


The Zulus became historically important in the early 19th cent. under Shaka, whose conquests reduced many neighboring people to vassalage and caused others to flee. His successors soon encountered the Boer settlers migrating north into Natal (see KwaZulu-Natal) as part of the Great Trek. The Zulu chief Dingane ambushed and killed about 500 Boers in 1838. In revenge the forces of Andries Pretorius killed about 3,000 Zulus in the Battle of Blood River. Subsequent Boer intervention in Zulu domestic affairs led in 1840 to the overthrow of Dingane and the crowning of Mpande, who became a vassal of the Boer republic of Natal.

The British, who succeeded the Boers as rulers of Natal in 1843, encountered the hostility of Mpande's son, Cetshwayo. After he ignored an ultimatum that he submit to British rule, Great Britain launched an attack on Zululand in 1878 and, although suffering several grave defeats, finally triumphed in July, 1879. Faced with continuing Zulu rebellions, the British annexed Zululand in 1887; it became part of Natal in 1897.

The bantustan (black "homeland" ) designated by the government of South Africa, in accordance with the Bantu Self-Government Act of 1959, to be the Zulu homeland was initially named Zululand, but was soon renamed KwaZulu [land of the Zulus] after it was established in 1970. KwaZulu was made up of isolated tracts of land, forming only a part of historical Zululand, and was neither geographically unified nor territorially homogeneous. The area north of the Tugela River, where the largest tracts of Zulu territory lie, formed the hub of KwaZulu. KwaZulu was nominally self-governing from 1977; Ulundi was the capital from 1980. Slightly more than half of South Africa's Zulu population lived in KwaZulu, which also had Xhosa, Sotho, and Swazi minorities.

The Inkatha movement, an indigenous association whose membership initially consisted primarily of Zulu migrant workers, played an important and controversial role in the political life of South Africa in the late 20th cent. Inkatha and its leader, Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi, who was the chief minister of KwaZulu, were accused of collaborating with apartheid forces in the South African government, and long-standing hostilities between Inkatha and the African National Congress (ANC) led to bloodshed in the black townships of Natal. In Apr., 1994, just before national elections, Buthelezi agreed to abandon a boycott and have his Inkatha Freedom party participate. In return, the KwaZulu region was given autonomy under Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithini, with Buthelezi as his prime minister, while at the same time being incorporated into the new KwaZulu-Natal province. Attempting to stay above politics, the king subsequently distanced himself from Inkatha. Violence and political feuding between Zulu supporters of Buthelezi and Zulu partisans of the ANC continued in the mid-1990s but largely subsided in the last years of the decade.


See S. Taylor, Shaka's Children: A History of the Zulu People (1996).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Zulu: Selected full-text books and articles

Shaka and the Modern Zulu State By Wylie, Dan History Today, Vol. 44, No. 5, May 1994
The Dust Rose like Smoke: The Subjugation of the Zulu and the Sioux By James O. Gump University of Nebraska Press, 2016 (2nd edition)
Black Soldiers of the Queen: The Natal Native Contingent in the Anglo-Zulu War By P. S. Thompson University of Alabama Press, 2006 (Revised edition)
Imperial Strategy and the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 By O'Connor, Damian P The Historian, Vol. 68, No. 2, Summer 2006
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
An African Thermopylae? the Battles of the Anglo-Zulu War, 1879 By Murray, J Akroterion, Annual 2009
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Warfare, Political, Leadership, and State Formation: The Case of the Zulu Kingdom, 1808-1879(1) By Deflem, Mathieu Ethnology, Vol. 38, No. 4, Fall 1999
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Custom and Conflict in Africa By Max Gluckman Basil Blackwell, 1955
Librarian's tip: Includes discussion of Zulu history and culture in multiple chapters
Southern African Literatures By Michael Chapman Longman, 1996
Librarian's tip: Chap. 2 "African (Bantu) Songs, Stories, Praises"
The History of South Africa By Roger B. Beck Greenwood Press, 2000
Librarian's tip: "The Zulu Wars" begins on p. 81
The Zulus and the Boer War By Maphalala, Jabulani History Today, Vol. 50, No. 1, January 2000
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