pharaoh (fâr´ō) [Heb., from Egyptian,=the great house], title of the kings of ancient Egypt. Of the pharaohs in the Bible, Shishak is Sheshonk I, Neco or Necoh is Necho, and Hophra is Apries. Many scholars believe that the pharaoh who oppressed the Jews in chapters 1–14 of the Book of Exodus was Seti I and that his son Ramses II was the pharaoh of the Exodus.

See also Dynasties of Ancient Egypt (table).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Pharaohs: Selected full-text books and articles

The Spirit of Ancient Egypt By Ana Ruiz Algora, 2001
Librarian's tip: Chap. 22 "Kings and Conquerers," Chap. 23 "Queens"
Early Dynastic Egypt By Toby A. H. Wilkinson Routledge, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 6 "Kingship"
The Last Pharaohs: Egypt under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC By J. G. Manning Princeton University Press, 2010
Ptolemy of Egypt By Walter M. Ellis Routledge, 1994
Cleopatra: A Biography By Duane W. Roller Oxford University Press, 2010
Hatshepsut: The Female Pharaoh By Ray, John History Today, Vol. 44, No. 5, May 1994
Tausret: Forgotten Queen and Pharaoh of Egypt By Richard H. Wilkinson Oxford University Press, 2012
Amasis: The Pharaoh with No Illusions By Ray, John History Today, Vol. 46, No. 3, March 1996
Great Leaders, Great Tyrants? Contemporary Views of World Rulers Who Made History By Arnold Blumberg Greenwood Press, 1995
Librarian's tip: "Akhenaten c. 1396-1360 B.C.E.: King of Egypt, 1377-1360 B.C.E." begins on p. 1
Who's Who in Ancient Egypt By Michael Rice Routledge, 1999
Looking for a topic idea? Use Questia's Topic Generator
Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed


An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.