Tiberius (Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus) (tībēr´ēəs), 42 BC–AD 37, second Roman emperor (AD 14–AD 37). He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla and was originally named Tiberius Claudius Nero. He campaigned (20 BC) in Armenia, became (19 BC) governor of Transalpine Gaul, and aided (12 BC) his brother Drusus on the Rhine and the Danube. Augustus, his stepfather, compelled him (12 BC) to divorce his wife, Vipsania Agrippina, and to marry Julia, the widow of Agrippa and daughter of Augustus. After the death of Drusus (9 BC) he campaigned in Germany, and following a second consulship (7 BC) he retired to Rhodes for seven years. On his return he was adopted as heir of the emperor and was sent (AD 4) into Germany. Five years later he subjugated Illyricum. Tiberius succeeded without difficulty on the death of Augustus in AD 14. He spent his efforts in continuing the policies of Augustus, with one exception; he drastically cut luxury expenses, including public shows. By so doing and by reforming the tax situation in the provinces he greatly improved the financial state of the government and made himself extremely unpopular in Rome. For years Sejanus was his chief aid and confidant. Tiberius retired to Capri in AD 26 and ruled thereafter by correspondence. He grew suspicious of intrigues and in AD 31 had Sejanus killed. Modern historians have been inclined to treat his administration more favorably than did Roman historians. He was succeeded by Caligula.

See studies by F. B. Marsh (1931) and R. Seager (1972).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Tiberius: Selected full-text books and articles

The Reign of Tiberius By Frank Burr Marsh Barnes & Noble, 1931
Tiberius: The Resentful Caesar By Gregorio Marañón Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1956
The Twelve Caesars By Suetonius; Robert Graves Penguin Books, 1957
Librarian's tip: Includes a chapter on Tiberius
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
FREE! Characters and Events of Roman History: From Caesar to Nero By Guglielmo Ferrero; Frances Lance Ferrero Chautauqua Press, 1917
Librarian's tip: Includes "Julia and Tiberius"
FREE! The Women of the Caesars By Guglielmo Ferrero Century, 1911
A History and Description of Roman Political Institutions By Frank Frost Abbott Biblo and Tannen, 1963 (3rd edition)
Librarian's tip: Includes "From Tiberius to Nero"
Valerius Maximus & the Rhetoric of the New Nobility By W. Martin Bloomer University of North Carolina Press, 1992
The Roman Revolution By Ronald Syme Oxford University Press, 1960
Librarian's tip: Includes "The Succession"
Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean By Charles Freeman Oxford University Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: Includes "From the Gracchi to Caesar, 133-55 B. C."
A History of the Roman People By Fritz M. Heichelheim; Cedric A. Yeo Prentice-Hall, 1962
The Augustan Aristocracy By Ronald Syme Clarendon Press, 1986
Tiberius the Politician By Barbara Levick Routledge, 1999
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