Azerbaijan (country, Asia)

Azerbaijan (ä´zərbījän´, ă´zər–), Azeri Azərbaycan, officially Republic of Azerbaijan, republic (2015 est. pop. 9,617,000), 33,428 sq mi (86,579 sq km), in Transcaucasia. Strategically situated at the gateway to SW Asia, Azerbaijan is bounded by Iran on the south, where the Aras (Araks) River divides it from Iranian Azerbaijan; by the Caspian Sea on the east; by Russia's Dagestan Republic on the north; and by Armenia on the west. Bakı (Baku) is the capital; other major cities include Ganja and Sumqayit.

Land and People

Azerbaijan occupies the western ranges of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus and the Kura River valley. The republic includes the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (or Naxçivan, an exclave separated from Azerbaijan proper by Armenia) and Nagorno-Karabakh (an ethnically Armenian region that now has de facto independence; see under History). The Azeri (Azerbaijani), a Turkic-speaking, Shiite Muslim people of Persian culture, make up about 90% of the republic's population; Dagestanis, Russians, and Armenians (largely in Nagorno-Karabakh) are the largest minorities. Prior to the Russian Revolution, the country, like much of Transcaucasia, was ethnically more mixed, but Azeris and other ethnic groups became more concentrated in ethnically based republics and regions during the Soviet period, especially in the fighting the fighting during 1917–20 and again beginning in the late 1980s. Azerbaijani (Azeri) is the country's official language. The republic's educational institutions include Bakı State Univ., Khazar Univ. and the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences.


The Kura River valley is the region's chief agricultural zone. Wheat, barley, corn, fruits and vegetables, wine grapes, and potatoes are the leading food crops, and cotton, silk, and tobacco the foremost industrial crops. The subtropical Lankaran Lowland produces tea and rice. The Absheron peninsula is one of the richest oil regions of the world. Although production of Caspian Sea oil and gas had declined for several years, it began growing again in the late 1990s under production-sharing agreements with multinational corporations. The republic's other mineral resources include natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, limestone, pyrites, cobalt, and alumina. Widespread salt springs have enabled health resorts to flourish. Among the chief manufactures are petroleum products, oilfield equipment, steel, chemicals and petrochemicals, and textiles. The old craft of carpet weaving is still practiced. Azerbaijan's main trading partners are Italy, Russia, and Turkey.


Azerbaijan is governed under the constitution of 1995 as amended. The president is the head of state and is elected by popular vote to a seven-year term. He appoints the prime minister, who is the head of government; the prime minister is confirmed by the National Assembly. The members of the popularly elected, 125-seat unicameral National Assembly serve five-year terms. The country is divided into 59 administrative divisions or rayons, 11 cities, and one autonomous republic.


The Republic of Azerbaijan comprises the Transcaucasian or northern part of the historic region called Azerbaijan. Long inhabited, it is the site of archaeological remains dating back over a million years. Known to the ancients as Albania, the area was located at the crossroads of East and West on the historic Silk Road. Conquered by Alexander the Great and later by the Roman Pompey, it was linked to the history of Armenia and Persia, particularly after its conquest (4th cent.) by Shapur II. The area was invaded by Muslim Arabs in the 7th cent. and was a province of the Arab caliphate for the next two centuries. In the 11th cent. it became part of the Turkish Seljuk Empire. Overrun by Mongols in the 13th cent., it was divided after the fall (15th cent.) of Timur into several principalities (notably Shirvan).

At the beginning of the 19th cent. Russia began its occupation, acquiring the territory of the present Azerbaijan from Persia through the treaties of Gulistan (1813) and Turkamanchai (1828). By the latter date, the territory had been split into two parts, the N portion of which constitutes modern Azerbaijan. The area became a major oil producer in the middle of the 19th cent.

Soon after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 (see Russian Revolution), Russian Azerbaijan joined Armenia and Georgia to form the anti-Bolshevik Transcaucasian Federation. After its dissolution (May, 1918), Azerbaijan proclaimed itself an independent state with a democratic and secular government, but it was conquered by the Red Army in 1920 and made into a Soviet republic. In 1922, Azerbaijan joined the USSR as a member of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Republic. With the administrative reorganization of 1936, it became a separate republic. Immediately after World War II, Azerbaijan was used as a base for Communist rebels in Iranian Azerbaijan; Azeri nationalists still press claims to Iran's Azerbaijan province.

Azerbaijan declared itself independent of the USSR in Aug., 1991, and became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. In 1992, Abulfaz Elchibey, leader of the Popular Front party, was elected president, but he was ousted by the parliament a year later, after a military mutiny. Heydar Aliyev, leader of the Azerbaijan Communist party from 1969 to 1982, assumed power and was confirmed in office by an election. Aliyev promoted exploitation of the country's oil resources through agreements with Russia and several Western oil companies for development of oil fields in the Caspian Sea. In the Nov., 1995, elections, which were condemned by outside observers as rigged, voters elected a new parliament that was dominated by Aliyev's party and approved constitutional changes that expanded his power. Aliyev was reelected in 1998, and his New Azerbaijan party retained power in the Nov., 2000, parliamentary elections, which like the 1995 balloting was not regarded as free and fair.

In Aug., 2003, the ailing president appointed his son, Ilham Aliyev, as the country's prime minister. The president withdrew from the Oct., 2003, election in favor of his son, who was elected by a landslide; the balloting was criticized by independent observers as neither free nor fair. The elder Aliyev died two months after the election. Parliamentary elections in Nov., 2005, returned the governing party to power, albeit with a reduced majority, but the vote was again criticized by European observers and denounced as fraudulent by the opposition.

Prior to the vote the government had blocked the return of exiled opposition leader Rasul Guliyev by having him held in Ukraine on corruption charges, and then arrested several current and former members of the government and others, charging them with plotting a coup against the government with Guliyev. These and subsequent government changes (into 2006) were seen as attempts by the president to consolidate his power. In the 2008 presidential election Aliyev was reelected by a landslide, but the vote was boycotted by the main opposition parties and marred by irregularites. The opposition also boycotted a referendum in 2009 that ended the presidential two-term limit.

In 2010 the parliamentary elections were again marred by fraud and other irregularities and were criticized by European observers; the ruling party increased its majority, and other government supporters won nearly all of the rest of the seats. Aliyev was reelected in 2013, again by a landslide. Although he benefited from improved living standards under his rule, the election was again marred by significant irregularities. The 2015 parlimentary elections were handily won the ruling party but were criticized for shortcomings. A referendum in 2016 approved several changes to the constitution, including increasing the presidential term from five to seven years, that greatly increased the powers of the president. The 2008 presidential election, which the main opposition parties boycotted, was won by Aliyev in a landslide, but the voting was again marred by serious irregularites.

During the late 1980s ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno-Karabakh region had pressed for its unification with Armenia, leading to a guerrilla war. A large-scale conflict broke out between the two republics in 1992; the Armenian side gained effective control of the region and adjoining Azerbaijani territory to the south and west by 1994, when a cease-fire was reached with Russian mediation. Some one million Azeris were made refugees within Azerbaijan as a result of the conflict. Attempts to resolve the conflict have proved unsuccessful, and sometimes intense border clashes have recurred since 1994. Azerbaijan has offered the region a high degree of autonomy, but the Armenians there have insisted on independence or union with Armenia. Following Turkey's signing of protocols with Armenia that called for the establishment of relations between the two nations, Azerbaijan's relations with Turkey became strained. Though Turkey seemed unlikely to ratify the protocols in the absence of progress toward resolution the Nagorno-Karabakh issue, Azerbaijan threatened to end sales of subsidized natural gas to Turkey.

Relations with Russia and Iran have also been strained at times. Russia has forcefully sought Azeribaijan's cooperation on military and other matters, which Azerbaijan has resisted giving. Iran has supported Islamic groups in Azerbaijan and has challenged the country's right to drill for oil in parts of the Caspian.


See T. Swietochowski, Russian Azerbaijan, 1905–1920 (1985).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Azerbaijan: Selected full-text books and articles

Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War By Thomas De Waal New York University Press, 2013 (10th edition)
Gender and Ideology: Social Change and Islam in Post-Soviet Azerbaijan By Najafizadeh, Mehrangiz Journal of Third World Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 2012
Victim of a "War of Ideologies": Azerbaijan after the Russia-Georgia War By Valiyev, Anar Demokratizatsiya, Vol. 17, No. 3, Summer 2009
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Why the Neutrality of Azerbaijan Is Important for the European Union By Abilov, Shamkhal; Hajiyev, Beyrak Insight Turkey, Vol. 21, No. 3, Summer 2019
The Legacy of History in Russia and the New States of Eurasia By S. Frederick Starr M. E. Sharpe, vol.1, 1994
Librarian's tip: Chap. 12 "Azerbaijan: A Borderland at the Crossroads of History"
Post-Soviet Azerbaijan: Transition to Sultanistic Semiauthoritarianism? an Attempt at Conceptualization By Guliyev, Farid Demokratizatsiya, Vol. 13, No. 3, Summer 2005
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Nagorno-Karabakh: An Apple of Discord between Armenia and Azerbaijan: Part One By Rasizade, Alec Contemporary Review, Vol. 293, No. 1701, June 2011
Nagorno-Karabakh: An Apple of Discord between Armenia and Azerbaijan By Rasizade, Alec Contemporary Review, Vol. 293, No. 1702, September 2011
Regional Power Rivalries in the New Eurasia: Russia, Turkey, and Iran By Alvin Z. Rubinstein; Oles M. Smolansky M.E. Sharpe, 1995
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "Azerbaijan and Iran"
Central Eurasia in Global Politics: Conflict, Security, and Development By Mehdi Parvizi Amineh; Henk Houweling Brill, 2004
Librarian's tip: Chap. V "The Economic and Social Impact of Systemic Transition in Central Asia and Azerbaijan"
Music of Azerbaijan: From Mugham to Opera By Aida Huseynova Indiana University Press, 2016
The Politics of Caspian Oil By Bülent Gökay St. Martin's Press, 2001
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "Azerbaijan's Energy Policy and Its Implications for Russian Security"
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