China, Ming Dynasty


Ming (mĬng), dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368–98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol Yüan dynasty, and unified all of China proper. He set up a strong, centralized government and carried out economic recovery programs. He abolished the office of prime minister, thereby strengthening the autocratic power of the emperor. The emperor Yung Lo (reigned 1402–24) moved (1421) the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, which developed into a magnificent city. The dynasty, which never created a viable taxation policy, always had fiscal problems. Seven great naval expeditions, under the command of the Grand Eunuch Cheng Ho, were sent at considerable cost to SE Asia, India, the Persian Gulf, and E Africa for tribute and trade (1405–33). These voyages ceased in 1433 and never resumed. Christian missionaries penetrated the Chinese hinterlands, and Europeans, such as Matteo Ricci, brought Western ideas to the Ming court. The Ming was generally a period of stability and prosperity. There were notable achievements in literature, philosophy, and the arts. Wang Yang-ming (1472–1529), the great Ming neo-Confucian philosopher, developed an activist approach to moral training and self-cultivation. The huge Yung-lo Encyclopedia (Yung-lo ta-tien), which included all major works in Confucian classics, history, philosophy, and miscellaneous subjects, was compiled in the early 15th cent. Four great novels, The Romance of the Three Kingdoms,The Water Margin (All Men Are Brothers), Journey to the West, and The Golden Lotus, were written in this period. Drama in the Southern style, painting, and architecture reached great heights. The delicate monochromatic porcelain of the Ming period is often considered the finest achievement of Chinese ceramics. Incompetent emperors, oppressive taxation, and factionalism in government in the later years of the dynasty incited revolts among peasants in the border regions and prepared the way for the Manchu conquest of China (see Ch'ing).

See R. Huang, 1587: A Year of No Significance (1981); F. F. Mote and D. Twitchett, ed., The Cambridge History of China (Vol. 7, 1988).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

China, Ming Dynasty: Selected full-text books and articles

Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China By Pamela Kyle Crossley; Helen F. Siu; Donald S. Sutton University of California Press, 2006
The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China By Timothy Brook University of California Press, 1998
China: A Short Cultural History By C. P. Fitzgerald; C. G. Seligman D. Appleton-Century, 1938
Librarian's tip: Part Six "The Ming Dynasty"
The Rise and Splendour of the Chinese Empire By René Grousset Geoffrey Bles, 1952
Librarian's tip: Chap. XXVII "A National Restoration: The Ming Dynasty"
Events That Changed the World through the Sixteenth Century By Frank W. Thackeray; John E. Findling Greenwood Press, 2001
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "The Ming Dynasty Comes to Power, 1368-1431"
FREE! The Chinese System of Public Education By Ping Wen Kuo Teachers College Columbia University, 1915
Librarian's tip: "Development of Education under the Ming Dynasty (A.D. 1368-1644)" begins on p. 53
Qiu Ying's Other Patrons By Laing, Ellen Johnston The Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 117, No. 4, October-December 1997
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
A Survey of Scholarship on Late Ming Drama By Shen, Grant Shakespeare Studies, Vol. 31, Annual 2003
Broadening the Horizons of Chinese History: Discourses, Syntheses, and Comparisons By Ray Huang M.E. Sharpe, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 2 "The History of the Ming Dynasty and Today's World"
Pilgrim of the Clouds: Poems and Essays By Hung-Tao Yüan; Jonathan Chaves Weatherhill, 1978
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
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