Zhou Enlai

Zhou Enlai or Chou En-lai (both: jō ĕn-lī), 1898–1976, Chinese Communist leader. A member of a noted Mandarin family, he was educated at an American-supported school in China and a university in Japan. His involvement in radical movements led to several months imprisonment. After his release he studied (1920–22) in France. A founder of the Chinese Communist party, he established (1922) the Paris-based Chinese Communist Youth Group. After a few months in England, he studied in Germany. Zhou returned (1924) to China and joined Sun Yat-sen, who was then cooperating with the Communists. He served (1924–26) as deputy director of the political department at the Whampoa Military Academy, of which Chiang Kai-shek was commandant. After the Northern Expedition began, he worked as a labor organizer. In 1927 he directed a general strike in Shanghai, opening the city to Chiang's Nationalist forces. When Chiang broke with the Communists, executing many of his former allies, Zhou became a fugitive from the Kuomintang. Later, holding prominent military and political posts in the Communist party, he participated in the long march (1934–35) to NW China. During the partial Communist-Kuomintang rapprochement (1936–46) he was the chief Communist liaison officer.

In 1949, with the establishment of the People's Republic of China at Beijing, Zhou became premier and foreign minister. He headed the Chinese Communist delegation to the Geneva Conference of 1954 and to the Bandung Conference (1955). In 1958 he relinquished the foreign ministry but retained the premiership. A practical-minded administrator, Zhou maintained his position through all of Communist China's ideological upheavals, including the Great Leap Forward (1958) and the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). Initially supportive of the latter, he was periodically attacked by Red Guards for attempting to shelter its victims. He was largely responsible for China's reestablishing contacts with the West in the early 1970s before becoming ill.

See biographies by D. W. Chang (1984), D. Wilson (1984), and G. Wenqian (2003, tr. 2007).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Zhou Enlai: Selected full-text books and articles

Zhou Enlai: The Early Years
Chae-Jin Lee.
Stanford University, 1994
A Dictionary of Political Biography
Dennis Kavanagh.
Oxford University Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "Zhou Enlai" begins on p. 520
China: An Introduction
Lucian W. Pye; Mary W. Pye.
Little, Brown, 1984 (3rd edition)
Librarian’s tip: "The Poised Spokesman: Zhou Enlai" begins on p. 222
Gun Barrel Politics: Party--Army Relations in Mao's China
Fang Chu.
Westview Press, 1998
The Dynamics of Foreign-Policy Decisionmaking in China
Ning Lu.
Westview Press, 1997
China's Road to the Korean War: The Making of the Sino-American Confrontation
Chen Jian.
Columbia University Press, 1994
Rebellions and Revolutions: China from the 1800s to the 1980s
Jack Gray.
Oxford University Press, 1990
The Culture of Power: The Lin Biao Incident in the Cultural Revolution
Jin Qiu.
Stanford University, 1999
Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution
Yan Jiaqi; Gao Gao; D. W. Y. Kwok; D. W. Y. Kwok.
University of Hawaii Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: "Zhou Enlai Pursuing Trident 256" begins on p. 329, and "Weaving a Net around Zhou Enlai" begins on p. 425
An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996
John E. Jessup.
Greenwood Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "Zhou Enlai" begins on p. 833
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