Taliban or Taleban (tälēbän´, –lə–), Islamic fundamentalist militia of Afghanistan and later Pakistan, originally consisting mainly of Sunni Pashtun religious students from Afghanistan who were educated and trained in Pakistan. The Taliban emerged as a significant force in Afghanistan in 1994 when they were assigned by Pakistan to protect a convoy in Afghanistan, which marked the beginning of a long-term alliance between the group and Pakistani security forces. The Taliban subsequently won control of Kandahar, and by 1996 they had gained control over much of Afghanistan, including Kabul, either by force or through forming alliances with other mujahidin.

The Taliban established a government headed by Mullah Muhammad Omar, the group's spiritual leader (and a military leader as well) until his death c.2013. Although the civil war continued, mainly with the Northern Alliance in N Afghanistan, Taliban rule ended much of the factional fighting and corrupt rule that had afflicted Afghanistan after the collapse in 1992 of the Soviet-aligned government. The Taliban also rigidly enforced puritannical laws that were influenced by Wahhabi Islam and Afghan tribal customs, and provided a refuge for Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda and similar Islamic militant groups. Following the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks that Al Qaeda launched against the United States, the United States retaliated against Al Qaeda and the Taliban, providing support for a Northern Alliance offensive against the Taliban that led to their collapse and the entry of U.S. forces into Afghanistan. By Dec., 2001, the Taliban had surrendered their last urban stronghold, Kandahar, and they and Al Qaeda retreated into the mountains along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border or dispersed among the Pashtuns in Afghanistan and neighboring Pakistan.

The Taliban subsequently survived several U.S. and NATO campaigns intended to eliminate them as a significant guerrilla force. Aided by the renewed warlordism and corruption, by tribal Pashtun ties, and by a largely moribund Afghan economy, they reestablished training camps in Pakistan, mainly in North and South Waziristan and Baluchistan, and continued to draw students from religious schools there; they also were widely believed to receive support from Pakistan's security forces, despite denials by Pakistan.

By 2003 the Taliban were again mounting ongoing guerrilla attacks in Afghanistan, mainly against government supporters and forces, school teachers, and foreign troops and aid workers; they used suicide-bomber attacks. Several times the Taliban gained control of S Afghanistan districts and towns in larger operations, though by 2014 the Taliban were less successful in battle and controlled only a few districts. They had greater success against Afghan forces after the withdrawal in 2014 of foreign combat troops, mounting a number of successful attacks, as at Kunduz in N Afghanistan in 2015, but could not always hold (or did not always choose to hold) territory they had won. Nonetheless, additional successes led by mid-2017 to effective Taliban control of roughly half the country. Since 2010 the Taliban have increasingly come to resemble a criminal organization in their dependence and focus on extortion, opium, morphine, and heroin production and trafficking, illegal mining, and the like. Most of the Taliban's funding now comes from the illegal drug trade.

The Taliban's presence in Pakistan has led to the growth of a so-called Pakistani Taliban as well. Drawn mainly from Pakistan's ethnic Pashtuns and consisting of a number of loosely allied militias who also have split into factions at times, they have become an important militant force based primarily in Waziristan but with operations in other areas, seeking to establish a rigid, extremely conservative form of Islamic law and fighting at times with government troops. The Pakistani government has accused members of the Pakistani Taliban of assassinating (2007) Benazir Bhutto. In 2009 the Pakistani military conducted major offensives again the Taliban in Swat and South Waziristan. The Pakistani Taliban are believed to have been involved in plotting the 2010 attempted bombing of Times Square, New York City, and have trained foreign Islamists. A Pakistani government offense was mounted again the group in North Waziristan in 2014, leading to murderous revenge attack against a Peshawar school. Also in Pakistan are the groups known as Punjabi Taliban; these draw their membership mainly from the Sunnis of Punjab prov.

See studies by A. Rashid (rev. ed. 2010) and P. Bergen and K. Tiedemann (2013).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Taliban: Selected full-text books and articles

The Taliban and the Crisis of Afghanistan By Robert D. Crews; Amin Tarzi Harvard University Press, 2008
The Afghan Way of War: How and Why They Fight By Rob Johnson Oxford University Press, 2011
Librarian's tip: Chap. 7 "The Civil War, the Taliban and the Insurgency, 1990–2011"
Understanding and Influencing Public Support for Insurgency and Terrorism By Paul K. Davis; Eric V. Larson; Zachary Haldeman; Mustafa Oguz; Yashodhara Rana Rand, 2012
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "Public Support for the Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan"
Military Adaptation in Afghanistan By Theo Farrell; Frans Osinga; James A. Russell Stanford University Press, 2013
Librarian's tip: Chap. 10 "Military Adaptation by the Taliban, 2001–201"
Modern Islamist Movements: History, Religion, and Politics By Jon Armajani Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
Librarian's tip: Chap. 6 "Afghanistan"
Afghanistan: From Here to Eternity? By Maloney, Sean M Parameters, Vol. 34, No. 1, Spring 2004
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Global Responses to Terrorism: 9/11, Afghanistan and Beyond By Mary Buckley; Rick Fawn Routledge, 2003
Librarian's tip: "Start of War in Afghanistan" begins on p. 15 and Chap. 16 "Unexpectedly at Center Stage: Pakistan"
Women of the Afghan War By Deborah Ellis Praeger Publishers, 2000
Librarian's tip: "The Taliban" begins on p. 60
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad By David B. Edwards University of California Press, 2002
Librarian's tip: Chap. 8 "Topakan and Taliban"
Civil War in Afghanistan. (Reflections in a Time of Crisis)(Cover Story) By Mertz, Gayle Social Education, Vol. 65, No. 7, November-December 2001
The Women of Afghanistan. (in Focus) By Tell, Carol Social Education, Vol. 66, No. 1, January-February 2002
The Taliban's Life of Luxury By Moreau, Ron Newsweek, Vol. 161, No. 22, June 12, 2013
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