Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago (trĬn´Ĭdăd, təbā´gō), officially Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, republic (2015 est. pop. 1,222,000), 1,980 sq mi (5,129 sq km), West Indies. The capital is Port of Spain.

Land and People

The country consists of two main islands, Trinidad (1,864 sq mi/4,828 sq km) and Tobago (116 sq mi/300 sq km), and their small neighboring islands. Lying just north of the Orinoco River delta in Venezuela, Trinidad is largely flat or undulating except for a range of low mountains (the highest point is Mt. Aripo, 3,085 ft/940 m) in the north. Pitch Lake, in the southwest, is the world's largest (114 acres/46 hectares) basin of natural asphalt. Tobago, just NE of Trinidad, is the exposed top of a mountain ridge (maximum height 2,000 ft/610 m) that is densely forested with large reserves of hardwoods. The climate of both islands is warm and humid, and rainfall (from June to Dec.) is abundant, particularly where the trade winds sweep in over the eastern coasts. The population is mainly of South Asian or African descent (40% each), with a mixed-race minority. English is the official language, but Hindi, French, Spanish, and Chinese are also spoken. There are many religious groups, including Roman Catholic, Anglican, and other Christian churches, Hindus and Muslims.

Economy

The most important exports are petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals, steel products, and fertilizer. Trinidad possesses sizable oil and gas reserves, and its prosperity is linked directly to the production of petroleum and petrochemicals. A peaking of petroleum production in the late 1970s and the decline in worldwide petroleum prices in the 1980s caused economic problems. However, increased exploitation of the country's natural gas reserves since the 1990s, as well as rising prices for oil, petrochemicals, and liquefied natural gas, have caused an economic boom. The islands also have a significant tourist industry. Agriculture employs a smaller proportion of the population than industry and services; agricultural products include cocoa, rice, coffee, citrus fruit, and flowers. The main trading partners are the United States, Jamaica, and Brazil.

Government

Trinidad and Tobago is a parliamentary democracy governed under the constitution of 1976. It has a bicameral Parliament made up of a 31-seat appointed Senate and a 36-seat elected House of Representatives; all members serve five-year terms. The government is headed by a prime minister. The head of state is the president, who is elected by the members of Parliament for a five-year term. Aministratively, the country is divided into 9 regional corporations, 2 city corporations, 3 borough corporations, and 1 ward (Tobago).

History

Trinidad was visited by Christopher Columbus in 1498 but was not colonized because of the lack of precious metals. It was raided by the Dutch (1640) and the French (1677, 1690) and by British sailors. Britain captured it in 1797 and received formal title in 1802. Tobago had been settled by the English in 1616, but the settlers were driven out by the indigenous Caribs. The island was held by the Dutch and the French before being acquired by the British in 1803. The islands were joined politically in 1888.

Before becoming an independent nation in 1962, the islands were part of the short-lived West Indies Federation (1958–62). In 1976 Trinidad and Tobago became a republic. In 1986 the People's National Movement (PNM), which had held power for three decades, was soundly defeated by the National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR); party leader A. N. R. Robinson became prime minister. He survived a 1990 coup attempt by Muslim extremists, but discontent with Robinson's economic austerity program helped return the PNM to power in 1991, under Prime Minister Patrick Manning. After the 1995 elections, Basdeo Panday, of the United National Congress (UNC), formed a coalition with the NAR and became Trinidad's first prime minister of Asian Indian descent. He and the UNC were returned to power in the 2000 elections, but corruption charges and a party split led to elections in 2001. When the UNC and PNM each won half the seats in the parliament, the president appointed Patrick Manning as prime minister, but the split control of parliament resulted in a deadlock that prevented that body from convening. New elections in 2002, however, resulted in a majority for the PNM.

In 2005, opposition leader Panday and his wife were arrested on corruption charges in connection with an airport development project; UNC officials denounced the charges as politically motivated. Panday was convicted in 2006, of failing to disclose a British bank account he held with his wife. The judge in the case subsequently accused the chief justice of attempting to influence his decision, but the charges against the chief justice were dropped (2007) when the judge refused to testify; impeachment proceedings were also brought against the chief justice, who was cleared later in the year. Panday's conviction was overturned (2007) on appeal on the grounds that the judge's actions were indicative of bias.

Manning and the PNM remained in power following the 2007 parliamentary elections. When Manning called snap elections for May, 2010, the PNM was defeated by the People's Partnership coalition, which benefited from corruption scandals involving the PNM. Kamla Persad-Bissessar, who had succeeded Panday as UNC leader, became prime minister; she was the first woman to hold the post. Beginning in Aug., 2011, the government imposed several months of emergency rule in an attempt to halt a surge in violent crime connnected with the drug trade. In Sept., 2015, the PNM, now led by Keith Rowley, regained power after parliamentary elections.

Bibliography

See G. Carmichael, The History of the West Indian Islands of Trinidad and Tobago, 1498–1900 (1961); J. K. Black et al., Area Handbook for Trinidad and Tobago (1976); S. B. MacDonald, Trinidad and Tobago: Democracy and Development in the Caribbean (1986).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Trinidad and Tobago: Selected full-text books and articles

Caliban and the Yankees: Trinidad and the United States Occupation By Harvey R. Neptune University of North Carolina Press, 2007
Resistance to Enslavement and Oppression in Trinidad, 1802-1849 By Brereton, Bridget The Journal of Caribbean History, Vol. 43, No. 2, July 1, 2009
Eric Williams and the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission: Trinidad's Future Nationalist Leader as Aspiring Imperial Bureaucrat, 1942-1944 By Martin, Tony The Journal of African American History, Vol. 88, No. 3, Summer 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Centring the City in the Amelioration of Slavery in Trinidad, 1824-1834 By Fergus, Claudius The Journal of Caribbean History, Vol. 40, No. 1, January 1, 2006
State Reaction to Globalization, a Class Centered Analysis: The Case of Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago By Ramsaran, Dave International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 45, No. 1-2, February-May 2004
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Regulation of Religion and the Making of Hinduism in Colonial Trinidad By Alexander Rocklin University of North Carolina Press, 2019
The Other CM: Catholic Missionary Outreach to the Indians of Trinidad in the Nineteenth Century By Taitt, Glenroy The Journal of Caribbean History, Vol. 44, No. 1, January 1, 2010
The Emergence and Evolution of Chinese Associations in Trinidad By Rajkumar, Fiona Ann The Journal of Caribbean History, Vol. 46, No. 2, July 1, 2012
Education and Socialization among the Indo-Muslims of Trinidad, 1917-1969 By Kassim, Halima-sa'Adia The Journal of Caribbean History, Vol. 36, No. 1, January 1, 2002
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